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Citing and referencing: Books

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Harvard Contents

Books: Print

One author

Reference list

Brick, J 2009, Academic culture: a student’s guide to studying at university, National Centre for English Language Teaching and  Research, Sydney.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Brick (2009, pp. 113-117) suggests three categories of reporting verbs.
*page numbers required for paraphrasing specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Various factors play a role in independent learning (Brick 2009, pp. 47-55).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent

As Brick (2009, p. 14) argues, 'most of the writing at university is likely to involve presenting a position'.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent Academic autonomy 'involves mastering the specific skills involved in analysis, critical thinking and problem solving' (Brick 2009, p. 52).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Organisation as author

Reference list United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2006, Human development report 2006: beyond scarcity: power, poverty and the global water crisis, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
*initials in round brackets only if you have used initials in your in-text citations

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The United Nations Development Programme (2006) argues that water is the most fundamental issue for the future.
*page numbers NOT required for referring to source as a whole
*if you have only one in-text citation to a source in your work, you must use the full author name (no initials or abbreviations)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The water crisis is most detrimental to the world's poor (United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] 2006).
*if you have two or more in-text citations to a source such as UNDP in your work include the initials in square brackets inside the round brackets for the first citation. For the subsequent in-text citations use only initials
Quoting - Author prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
UNDP (2006, p. 53) claims that 'one of the deepest disparities in water and sanitation is between urban and rural areas'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use initials UNDP only for second/subsequent citations
Quoting - Information prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
The problem in sub-Saharan Africa is its reliance on 'rainfed agriculture' (UNDP 2006, p. 177).
*pinpoint the quote
*use initials UNDP only for second/subsequent citations

 

Two authors

Reference list Carter, R & McCarthy, M 2006, Cambridge grammar of English: a comprehensive guide, Cambridge University Press,  Cambridge.
*retain order of authors given in the source

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Carter and McCarthy (2006) include a chapter analysing academic grammar and usage.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A descriptive approach to grammar usage in contexts is employed (Carter & McCarthy 2006).
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent Carter and McCarthy (2006, p. 267) point out that academic writing 'can refer to things in complex and condensed ways'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use and in sentence
Quoting - Information prominent

Hedging is often used to make statements 'less assertive' (Carter & McCarthy 2006, p. 279).
*pinpoint the quote
*use & in citation

 

Three authors

Reference list Bretag, T, Crossman, J & Bordia, S 2010, Communication skills, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
*retain order of authors given in the source

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Bretag, Crossman and Bordia (2010) explain the concept of voice in writing.
*use and in sentence
*use all three authors’ names in all in-text citations
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Reporting verbs create different effects in writing (Bretag, Crossman & Bordia 2010).
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent For Bretag, Crossman and Bordia (2010, p. 6), critical reading 'involves making judgements about the value of what you are reading'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use
and in sentence
Quoting - Information prominent

'Practising thoroughly also reduces anxiety' (Bretag, Crossman & Bordia 2010, p. 194).
*pinpoint the quote
*use & in citation

 

Four or more authors

Reference list Czinkota, M, Ronkainen, I, Sutton-Brady, C & Beal, T 2008, International marketing, Cengage Learning Australia, South Melbourne.
*retain order of authors given in the source

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Czinkota et al. (2008) address theoretical issues in the Asia Pacific market.
*use et al for all in-text citations
(note stop only after 'al'., not after 'et')
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Clearly detailed agreements are necessary (Czinkota et al. 2008).
*use et al.
Quoting - Author prominent Czinkota et al. (2008, p. xv) assert that 'the marketer must adapt to these foreign environments'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use et al.
Quoting - Information prominent

'Overall, growth potential… may be threatened by uncertainty' (Czinkota et al. 2008, p. 558).
*pinpoint the quote
*use et al.
*ellipsis of three dots indicates word/s omitted

 

No author

*use title in place of author

Reference list Style manual for authors, editors and printers 1996, 5th edn, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
*use title in italics in place of author

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Style manual for authors, editors and printers (1996) outlines publication rules and conventions.
*title in italics
*if you have only one in-text citation to a source with the title in place of author in your work, you must use the full title (no initials or abbreviations)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Punctuation and grammar rules are clearly explained (Style manual 1996).
*you can choose to abbreviate title for second/subsequent citations
Quoting - Author prominent According to the Style manual (1996, p. 43), 'hierarchical structures can often be used for more detailed material'.
*pinpoint the quote
*you can choose to abbreviate title for second/subsequent citations
Quoting - Information prominent

Writers need to understand 'how readers absorb information' (Style manual 1996, p. 37).
*pinpoint the quote
*you can choose to abbreviate title for second/subsequent citations

 

Second or later edition
*do not confuse edition with edited book

Reference list

Godfrey, J, Hodgson, A, Tarca, A, Hamilton, J & Holmes, S 2010, Accounting theory, 7th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia, Milton.
*retain order of authors given in the source

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Godfrey et al. (2010) survey and categorise the major theories in accounting in the first half of the book.
*use et al. (note stop only after ‘al.’, not after ‘et’)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Important differences between normative and positive theories of accounting are identified throughout the text (Godfrey et al. 2010).
*use et al.
Quoting - Author prominent

Godfrey et al. (2010, p. 30) indicate that a major criticism of statistical research is the way it 'tends to lump everything together'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use et al.

Quoting - Information prominent

A criticism advanced is that large-scale statistical research 'tends to lump everything together' (Godfrey et al. 2010, p. 30).
*pinpoint the quote
*use et al.

 

Translated and/or Revised

Reference list

González Sánchez, CA 2011, New world literacy: writing and culture across the Atlantic, 1500-1700, trans. T Platt, rev. B Aram, Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg.
*for translator and/or reviser use initials first (reverse the usual order)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

González Sánchez (2011) traces the impact of books on new world colonisers.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Perceptions play a greater role in later methodologies (González Sánchez 2011).
Quoting - Author prominent

As González Sánchez (2011, p. 91) argues, this monopoly 'helped reinforce the supposed homogeneity'.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent Prohibition increased 'the temptation and enjoyment of such accursed books' (González Sánchez 2011, p. 76).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Same author, different years

Reference list

Deegan, C 2007, Australian financial accounting, 4th edn, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
Deegan, C 2010, Australian financial accounting, 6th edn, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
*ascending chronological order

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Deegan (2007; 2010) updates information on changes to the standards.
*chronological order
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Accounting standards are regularly reviewed (Deegan 2007; 2010).
*chronological order
Quoting - Author prominent

Deegan (2007, p. xxiv) updates changes to standards 'released for application in 2005'; and also (2010, p. xxii) to 'the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards'.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent The IASB publishes an explanation of 'how it reaches its decision' (Deegan 2007, p. 38; 2010, p. 34) and also has 'full control over its technical agenda' (Deegan 2010, p. 34).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Same author, same year

Reference list

Matthews, P 2010a, A girl like me, Penguin Books, Camberwell.
Matthews, P 2010b, Zizzy, Omnibus Books, Malvern.
*order alphabetically by the next element (title)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Matthews (2010a; 2010b) writes for both teenagers and very young children.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A crime committed in Australia is the basis for her first fictional account (Matthews 2010a); while in the second the narrative inches slothfully into adventure (Matthews 2010b).
Quoting - Author prominent

Mathews' use of dialogue shifts from the idiomatic, 'she jumps a mile and screams' (2010a, p. 47) to the lyrical 'I would like to see the beginning of the rest of the world' (2010b, n. p.).
*pinpoint the quote
*n. p. indicates a source with no page numbers

Quoting - Information prominent

Movement to epiphany; for example, 'light has flooded the darkness' (2010a, p. 278) and the final words of Zizzy 'he could do anything' (2010b, n. p.), is a feature of writing by Matthews.
*pinpoint the quote
*n. p. indicates a source with no page numbers

 

 

Single editor

*to use material written by the editor
*do not confuse editor with edition
Reference list

Larkin, E (ed.) 2004, Common sense: Thomas Paine, Broadview Editions, Toronto.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

A study by Larkin (ed. 2004) collates and evaluates writing by Thomas Paine.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Paine's work triggered controversy (Larkin ed. 2004).
Quoting - Author prominent

Larkin (ed. 2004, p. 10) claims that Paine's writings 'represented a turning point in the revolution'.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent 'Paine's choice of metaphors, diction, syntax, and evidence were crucial to his success' (Larkin ed. 2004, p. 26).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Multiple editors

*to use material written by the editors
*do not confuse editor with edition
Reference list

Strangio, P & Costar, B (eds.) 2006, The Victorian premiers 1856-2006, The Federation Press, Sydney.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Strangio and Costar (eds. 2006, pp. 5-9) divide Victorian state politics into three major stages.
*pinpoint the specific information
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The first state Labor government in Victoria was elected in 1952 (Strangio & Costar eds. 2006, p. 8).
*pinpoint the specific information
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent

Strangio & Costar (eds. 2006, p. 7) emphasise that 'strong premierships are built on the rock of parliamentary dominance'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use and in sentence

Quoting - Information prominent The 'shift from volatility to stability' in Victorian politics occurred in the 1950s (Strangio & Costar eds. 2006, p. 8).
*pinpoint the quote
*use & in citation

 

Scholarly edition of a previously published book
*edited or with an introduction by a scholar

Reference list

Himmelfarb, G (ed.) 1974, John Stewart Mill: On liberty, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.
*capitalise the first word of a book title within the title (On liberty)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Mill's (Himmelfarb ed. 1974) concept of the freedom of the individual, originally published in 1859, still inspires debates.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The introductory essay gives background to Mill's development of the idea of freedom (Himmelfarb ed. 1974).
Quoting - Author prominent

For Mill (Himmelfarb ed. 1974, p. 59), the 'struggle between liberty and authority' is one of the driving forces of political change.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent Power over the individual by public opinion and government legislation will not diminish 'in the present circumstances of the world' (Himmelfarb ed. 1974, p. 74).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Chapter in an edited book

Reference list

Gregory, J 2008, 'Journeying across colonial landscapes: portable housing in nineteenth century Australia', in A Mayne (ed.), Beyond the Black Stump: histories of outback Australia, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, pp. 211-237.
*use ‘in’ (lower case) and for editor use initials first (reverse usual order)
*capitalise any names in the title

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

For Gregory (2008), the portable house was a symbol of British imperialism.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Portable houses were harbingers of more permanent settlement (Gregory 2008).
Quoting - Author prominent

Gregory (2008, p. 213) refers to 'fragmentary evidence' that some portable housing was made in Sydney.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent Apparently, 'thousands' of portable houses were imported (Gregory 2008, p. 211).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Edited book translated into English

Reference list

Wullschlager, J (ed.) 2004, Hans Christian Andersen fairy tales, trans. T Nunnally, Penguin Books, London.
*for translator use initials first (reverse usual order)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

According to Wullschlager (ed. 2004), Andersen is a modern literary writer.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Andersen's later stories employ more complex language (Wullschlager ed. 2004).
Quoting - Author prominent

Wullschlager (ed. 2004, p. xv) insists that 'in his anxiety over the future of civilised values Andersen is one of us'.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent Andersen is not considered an author 'but rather the curator of his stories' (Wullschlager ed. 2004, p. xvi).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Different authors, same surname, different years

Reference list

O'Neill, A 2011, Manager to leader: skills and insights for a successful transition, CCH Australia, Sydney.
O'Neill, M 2010, Asylum, migration and community, The Policy Press, Bristol.

 

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

O'Neill (2011) addresses the construction of leadership while O'Neill (2010) argues that humiliation plays a role in the production of refugees.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Poor leaders deny others' rights (O'Neill 2011) in the same way that asylum seekers are denied rights in many areas (O'Neill 2010).
Quoting - Author prominent

While O‟Neill (2011, p. 44) contends that dominance can lead to 'fear or rebellion', O'Neill (2010, p. 29) claims that it is imperative to understand the 'impact of humiliation'.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent There is concern that forced corporate 'compliance' (O'Neill 2011, p. 44) and 'the dehumanising asylum system and process' (O'Neill 2010, p. 81) result in escalating problems.
*pinpoint the quote

 

Different authors, same surname, same year

Reference list

Chapman, M 2010, Don’t be fooled again: lessons in the good, bad and unpredictable behaviour of global finance, Prentice Hall, London.
Chapman, P 2010, The last of the imperious rich: Lehman brothers, 1844-2008, Portfolio Penguin, London.
*order alphabetically by next available item (initial)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Peter Chapman (2010) details stakeholder reactions to the 1933 Glass-Steagall Act while Meyrick Chapman (2010) attends to the intent and effects of the act.
*in this situation include first names
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Peter Chapman (2010) describes the new Act as separating various financial functions while Meyrick Chapman (2010) describes the banks' anger at the constraints on their freedom to invest depositors' money.
Quoting - Author prominent

For Peter Chapman, the Act 'split up the two broad functions of banking, basically, the cash box and casino sides' (2010, p. 112); while for Meyrick Chapman it stopped banks 'distorting securities issuance business' (2010, p. 115).
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent The new Act 'made banks declare what they wanted to be' (Peter Chapman 2010, p. 113) and also 'prohibited the overlap of business by banks, insurance companies, brokers and fund managers' (Meyrick Chapman 2010, p. 115).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Citing a source within a source
*try to locate and use the cited source

Reference list

Frost, L 2008, 'Across the great divide: the economy of the inland corridor', in A Mayne (ed.), Beyond the Black Stump: histories of outback Australia, Wakefield Press, Kent Town.
*in the Reference list include only the book you actually used (not the source cited in the book you used).

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Fahey (1993 cited in Frost 2008, p. 69) provides evidence that wages were lower in regional areas.
*pinpoint the specific information
*include author and year of publication for both sources
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The value placed on private property was the cause of violent clashes with the nomadic indigenous people (Reynolds 1981 cited in Frost 2008, p. 63).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent

Kirschner (1970 cited in Frost 2008, p. 61) reports that rural communities 'saw cities as places that were “full of moral snares for the unwary"'.
*pinpoint the quote
*no space between adjacent double and single quote marks

Quoting - Information prominent For Australia 'the wool industry remained "the cornerstone of Australia's economic and social edifice' (Hancock 1930 cited in Frost 2008, p. 75).
*pinpoint the quote
*no space between adjacent double and single quote marks

 

Book in a series

Reference list

Swales, JM & Feak, CB 2004, Academic writing for graduate students: essential tasks and skills, Michigan series in English for academic and professional purposes, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
*include the name of the series (Michigan series in English for academic and professional purposes).

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Swales and Feak (2004) incorporate new research in textual analysis.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Writing critiques helps articulate scholarly expectations (Swales & Feak 2004).
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent

Swales and Feak (2004, p. 4) aim to encourage 'rhetorical consciousness'.
*use and in sentence

Quoting - Information prominent Summaries are a 'foundation for other, more complex tasks' (Swales & Feak 2004, p. 147).
*use & in citation

 

Edited volume in a multivolume set

Reference list

Broer, H, Hasselblatt, B & Takens, F (eds.) 2010, Handbook of dynamical systems, vol. 3, Differentiable dynamical systems, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
*include the name of the multivolume set (Differentiable dynamical systems).

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Broer, Hasselblatt and Takens (eds. 2010) address issues they view as likely to generate research.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Both abstract and concrete definitions are explored (Broer, Hasselblatt & Takens eds. 2010).
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent

According to Broer, Hasselblatt and Takens (eds. 2010, p. 6), 'the evolution map Ф is completely determined by the map φ'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use
and in sentence

Quoting - Information prominent State spaces 'always have some extra structure' (Broer, Hasselblatt & Takens eds. 2010, p. 4).
*pinpoint the quote
*use & in citation

 

Citing multiple sources simultaneously in a sentence

Reference list

Flower, L, Stein, V, Ackerman, J, Kantz, MJ, McCormick, K & Peck, WC, 1990, Reading to write, Oxford University Press, New York.
Mateos, M & Solé, I 2009, 'Synthesising information from various texts: a study of procedures and products at different educational levels', European Journal of Psychology of Education, vol. 24, pp. 435-451.
McGinley, W 1992, 'The role of reading and writing while composing from multiple sources', Reading Research Quarterly, vol. 27, pp. 227-248.
Spivey, NN 1997, Reading, writing and the making of meaning: the constructivist metaphor, Academic Press, San Diego.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

For Flower et al. (1990); Mateos & Solé (2009); McGinley (1992) and Spivey (1997) academic reading often involves synthesising conflicting arguments.
*this is a single sentence citing multiple sources
*use et al. for source with four or more authors (note stop only after ‘al., not after ‘et’)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Synthesising requires making decisions about organising the material from multiple sources (Flower et al. 1990; Mateos & Solé 2009; McGinley 1992; Spivey 1997).
*this is a single sentence citing multiple sources
Quoting - Author prominent

For clarity quote sources separately

Quoting - Information prominent For clarity quote sources separately

 

Book in a foreign language

Reference list

Dufays, J-L & Plane, S 2009, L'écriture de fiction en classe de français (Writing fiction in French class), Recherches en didactique du français, Presses Universitaires de Namur, Namur.
*translate the title if relevant

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Dufays and Plane (2009) analyse the introduction of creative writing in the French education system.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A discussion of the status of creative writing in the curriculum and in practice unfolds (Dufays & Plane 2009).
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent

Dufays and Plane (2009, p. 15) outline debates regarding 'une question récurrente' [the ongoing issue (my translation)] of differences between literature, narrative and fiction.
*pinpoint the quote
*use and in sentence

Quoting - Information prominent Territorial battles, 'chacun d'entre eux s'estimait le dépositaire d'une partie de l'héritage légué' [each considered itself custodian of part of the legacy (my translation)], ensued (Dufays & Plane 2009, p. 19).

 

Sacred book

Reference list

The Q’uran 2004, trans. M Haleem, Oxford World‟s Classics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
*use title in italics in place of author
*for translator use initials first (reverse usual order)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Q’uran (2004) is written largely in the form of didactic speeches.
*use title in italics
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The role and status of women in Islam are outlined in The Q’uran (2004, pp. 50-66).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent

Regarding dietary custom, The Q’uran (2004, p. 67) stipulates that 'you are forbidden to eat carrion'.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent Psychological insights, 'if evil touches him he loses all hope and becomes despondent' (The Q’uran 2004, p. 310) occur throughout.
*pinpoint the quote

 

Encyclopedia, no author

*encyclopedias are NOT acceptable as academic sources, unless as objects of research

Reference list

McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology 1997, vol. 9, ice-leo, 8th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.
*use title in italics in place of author
*include volume number and title (vol. 9, ice-leo).

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Encyclopedias often indicate the history of a term; for example, according to McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology (1997, p. 609) lagomorphs are no longer considered to be rodents.
*pinpoint the specific information
*use title as author
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Extended definitions are a feature of encyclopedias as in a description of ion exchange in terms of materials, properties and applications (McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology 1997, pp. 393-399).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent

McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology (1997, p. 594) characterises the Kondo effect as 'unusual', an example of an encyclopedia reporting evaluations from the discipline.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent While encyclopedias aim to provide accurate information; for example 'the Z0 particle has an extremely short lifetime of about 10-25 s' (McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology 1997, p. 337), the currency of the information needs to be checked.
*pinpoint the quote

 

Encyclopedia, one or more authors, specific entry

*encyclopedias are NOT acceptable as academic sources, unless as objects of research

Reference list

Golden, L 1998 'Reception of Aristotle in modernity', M Kelly (ed.), Encyclopedia of aesthetics, vol. 1, ABHI-DEPI, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
*include volume number and title (vol. 1, ABHI-DEPI).

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Golden (1998, pp. 107-108) outlines but does not detail conflicting views of mimesis.
*pinpoint the specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Aristotle's definition of tragedy is addressed in terms of extant interpretations only (Golden 1998, p. 106).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent

Golden (1998, p. 107) refers to a 'cognitive' view of catharsis, now in need of review.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent Recent scholars 'adopt, adapt, or modify Aristotelian theory' as they see fit (Golden 1998, p. 108).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Dictionary, one or more authors

*dictionaries are NOT acceptable as academic sources, unless as objects of research

Reference list

Soanes, C & Stevenson, A (eds.) 2005, Oxford dictionary of English, 2nd edn rev, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
*record editors/edition/revised as relevant

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Soanes and Stevenson (eds. 2005) include advice on usage in ambiguous cases.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Presbyterian churches are now often called Reformed churches (Soames & Stevenson eds. 2005, p. 1391).
*pinpoint the specific information
*use
& in citation
Quoting - Author prominent

Soanes and Stevenson (eds. 2005, p. 481) define diarchy as 'government by two independent authorities'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use and in sentence

Quoting - Information prominent The prefix xeno has its origin in the Greek for 'stranger, foreigner' (Soanes and Stevenson eds. 2005, p. 2037).
*pinpoint the quote
*use & in citation

 

Dictionary, no author, specific entry

*dictionaries are NOT acceptable as academic sources, unless as objects of research

Reference list

'Isotherm' 2005 Collins Australian dictionary, Harper Collins Publishers, Pymble.
*use title, as for book with no author

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

'Isotherm' (2005) gives only basic definitions of technical terms.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent For academic purposes, technical terms such as 'Isotherm' ('Isotherm' 2005, p. 424) are better described in subject dictionaries.
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent

'Isotherm' (2005, p. 424) defines isotherm as 'a line on a map linking places of equal temperature'.
*pinpoint the quote

Quoting - Information prominent The term isotherm comes from 'Greek isos equal + thermē heat' ('Isotherm' 2005, p. 424).
*pinpoint the quote
*retain italics used in the source

  Back to top

Books: Electronic

E-Book

Reference list Wheeler, JC 2007, Cosmic catastrophes: exploding stars, black holes, and mapping the universe, 2nd edn, e-book, Cambridge University Press, New York, viewed 10 January 2012, http://lib.myilibrary.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/Open.aspx?id=75048&loc=&srch=undefined&src=0
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Wheeler (2007) traces the shaping of concepts in astrophysics.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Stellar death involves simultaneous contraction of the core and expansion of the surrounding material (Wheeler 2007).
Quoting - Author prominent As Wheeler (2007, p. 228) points out, 'direct evidence for black holes in terms of a “dark spot” yet eludes us'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent 'We are gripped in a trispatiocentrism we rarely stop to recognise', limiting our ability to envisage multiple dimensions (Wheeler 2007, p. 299).
*pinpoint the quote

E-Book, book in a series

Reference list Morgan, DHJ 2011, Rethinking family practices, Palgrave Macmillan studies in family and intimate life, e-book, Palgrave Macmillan, London, viewed 10 January 2011, http://www.monash.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=665684
*include name of series
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Morgan (2011) investigates the terminology surrounding family practices.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Issues of time and space are particularly relevant in blended families (Morgan 2011, p. 75).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent For Morgan (2011, p. 132), ethics deals with 'everyday concerns'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent Family is 'continually being constructed and reconstructed through the performance of these practices' (Morgan 2011, p. 162).
*pinpoint the quote

E-book accessed via an e-book reader (e.g. Kindle, Nook, Sony Reader)

*many e-readers do not have page numbers, so it is preferable to locate a version of the source with page numbers

Reference list

Strunk, W, Jr, 2011, The elements of style, rev. C Hong (ed.), e-book, Elements of Style Press, Kindle Edition.

*rev for revised, ed. for edited (in this case it is the same person)
*include Jr (Junior) in the reference list(but not in in-text citations) if it is part of the name
*include titles such as Jr (Junior), Sr (Senior) or III (Third) in the reference list but not in in
-text citations
*where relevant, include version of the reader, (e.g. Kindle 3G), no URL required

Paraphrasing - Author prominent As Strunk (2011) indicates in the introduction, this now canonical text was initially published for students.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent In contrast to conventions followed in Australia, American punctuation requires a comma after all terms in a list of three or more items (Strunk 2011, n.p.).
*pinpoint the specific information (in this case *n.p. means no page numbers).
Quoting - Author prominent Strunk (2011, n.p.) acknowledges in the introductory section that sophisticated writers 'sometimes disregard the rules of rhetoric'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent As outlined in the introduction, Study of 'the masters of literature' will enhance writing skills (Strunk 2011, n.p.).
*pinpoint the quote

Chapter in an edited e-book

Reference list McLaughlin, M 2011, 'Rotating radio transients?, in W Becker (ed.), Neutron stars and pulsars, e-book, SpringerLink, Heidelberg, viewed 10 January 2011, pp. 41-66, http://www.springerlink.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/content/v4u65t/#section=50478&page=3&locus=58
*for editor use ‘in’ + initials first (reverse usual order)
*include name and city of electronic publisher
Paraphrasing - Author prominent McLaughlin (2011) reports the discovery of rotating radio transients.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Results for specific objects are analysed in detail (McLaughlin 2011).
Quoting - Author prominent McLaughlin (2011, p. 58) claims that 'the XMM observations of J1819-1458 have confirmed the neutron star nature of J1819-1458'.
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Quoting - Information prominent New discoveries 'hint at the rich variety of transient sources that remain to be discovered' (McLaughlin 2011, p. 65).
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Encyclopedia, no author, specific entry

*encyclopedias are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list 'Geoffrey Blainey' 2012, Encyclopedia Britannica online, viewed 13 January 2012, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/68731/Geoffrey-Blainey
*use title, as for book with no author
Paraphrasing - Author prominent 'Geoffrey Blainey' (2012) gives minimal biographical and professional information.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Blainey's work is significant in Australian economic and social history, but is not detailed ('Geoffrey Blainey' 2012).
Quoting - Author prominent 'Geoffrey Blainey' (2012, para. 3) describes Blainey's, style as 'lucid and imaginative', but gives no examples.
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Quoting - Information prominent Blainey's 'authoritative texts' have generated controversy, but there is no supporting evidence in the entry itself ('Geoffrey Blainey' 2012, para. 1).
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Dictionary, no author, specific entry

*dictionaries are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list 'Argument' 2011, Oxford English dictionary online, viewed 11 January 2012, http://www.oed.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/view/Entry/10663
Paraphrasing - Author prominent 'Argument' (2011) clearly traces the etymology of the term.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Various usages and nuances of the term 'argument' are demonstrated through historical examples ('Argument' 2011).
Quoting - Author prominent 'Argument' (2011, p. 2 of 4) highlights the logical dimension: 'A connected series of statements or reasons intended to establish a position (and, hence, to refute the opposite); a process of reasoning; argumentation'.
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Quoting - Information prominent The mathematical term 'argument' refers to 'an independent variable of a function' ('Argument' 2011, Draft additions 1997, p. 4 of 4).
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Dictionary, one or more authors

*dictionaries are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list Matsumoto, D 2009, The Cambridge dictionary of psychology, e-book, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, viewed 11 January 2012, http://www.monash.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=461152
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Matsumoto (2009) attempts to account for recent changes meanings of terms in psychology.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Major theories in psychology are briefly described (Matsumoto 2009).
Quoting - Author prominent Matsumoto (2009, p. 417) defines quantitative psychology as 'approaches that use mathematics in order to describe the workings of the mind and control of behaviour.'
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Quoting - Information prominent Psychology spans 'the microlevel neural processes… to macrolevel social and cultural processes' (Matsumoto 2009, p. xv).
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*ellipsis of three dots indicates word/s omitted

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