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Citing and referencing: Abbreviations used in referencing

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers



Standard abbreviations can be used in your citations

Some of the more commonly used examples of abbreviations are listed below.


For the edition of a book


For example Drugs and life (4th ed.).
Ed. or Eds.
When a book includes editors rather than authors


For example Robinson, D. N. (Ed.). (1992).
et al.
This means 'and others'
This is used in intext citations when there are 3 or more authors.
NOTE: stop only after 'al.', not after 'et'.


3 to 5 authors:
(Alberto, Jacobi, & Keating, 1993)
Use ‘Alberto et al.’ in subsequent citations.


6 or more authors:
(Szerman et al., 2005)
No date
For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.


For example 

In-text citation
(Southey, n.d.)

End-text reference
Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. London, England: Blackie.
no page numbers
For example:
Mathews' use of...(2010, n. p.).
NOTE: Instructions for electronic sources without page numbers
If page numbers are not given use approximate page number (p. 3 of 9); or paragraph number for short text (para. 2); or the heading given in the source for the particular section. For example:

The ABS (2004, p. 1 of 4) defines residents as 'economic entities (persons, organisations or enterprises) which have a closer association with the territory of Australia than with any other territory'.
Flitton (2012, para. 1) reports 'Australia is about to confront the biting reality of US military decline'.
Use in your end text referencing when the resource incorporates a number that represents the accession, order, catalogue, etc number


For example

Australian national accounts: National income, expenditure and product (Cat. No. 5206.0).

Dissertation Abstracts International. (University Microfilms No. 82-06, 181).

p. or pp.
These are included in the in-text citation. If one page number is being refered to, use the abbreviation p. for page. If there are multiple pages use pp. to represent pages.


For example

According to Gibbs (2009, pp. 34-35)

(Ezzy, 2002, p. 30)
For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number and, if available, preceded by the abbreviation ‘para.’


For example
(Clarkson, 2001, para. 2)
Rev. ed.
Revised edition
Used in end-text referencing when item is idetified as being a revised edition


For example
Referencing guide (14th Rev. ed.).
Name the translator or editor only in the end-text reference, immediately following the title. In the case of translated works, cite the title in its translated form, not in its original form.


For example
In-text citation
(Genet, 1966, p. 61)

End-text reference
Genet, J. (1966). The balcony (2nd ed.). (B. Frechtman, Trans.). London, England: Faber.
Vol. or Vols.
Include in end text referencing if books include volume information


For example
Robinson, A. (1994). The principals of genetics and heredity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 19, pp. 699-740). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.