Citing and referencing: Turabian

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

What is Turabian?

The Turabian style is a citing and referencing system based on the Chicago style and named after Kate Turabian, from the University of Chicago, who authored a manual to guide students in citing and referencing when writing research papers. The print manual is available from all Monash libraries: 

Two forms of Turabian

There are two forms of the Turabian style:

1. Notes - Bibliography Style: used in Fine Arts and commonly referred to as bibliography style. AHT1101 students use this form.

2. Author - Date: used in Design disciplines and so called because the author's name and date of publication are the critical elements for indentifying sources. In author-date style, you signal that you have used a source by placing a parenthetical citation (author, date, page number) next to your reference to that source.

These styles are essentially the same as those presented in the Chicago Manual of Style 16th ed.

General notes for Notes-Bibliography style

Superscript number:

  • Cited sources are indicated in your text by a superscript number placed at the end of the sentence, and after the full stop, in which you refer to that source. 1


  • Full source information (author, title, publication details, page numbers) is given in a correspondingly numbered note at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or in a list at the end of your paper (endnotes).
  • Full source details are given the first time a source is noted but abbreviated in subsequent references.
  • Use Ibid. (a Latin term meaning "in the same place") for a source repeated directly after the one before.
  • Use a shortened form when a source is subsequently repeated (but not consecutively).
  • If a source has multiple authors, list all authors (up to 3); for 4 or more authors list the first name followed by et al. (John Smith et. al.)
  • Notes may be used for commentary on the cited sources or other substantive information on the text.


  • Also list all your sources, at the end of your paper, in a bibliography.
  • The bibliography includes every source you cited in a note and may include others you consulted but did not cite.
  • Each bibliography entry includes the same information contained in the note but in a slightly different form.
  • The bibliography is normally a single list of all sources arranged alphabetically by the last name of the author or editor.
  • If a source does not have a named author, list it by the title (ignore articles such as a or the).
  • If a source has multiple authors list all names, regardless of how many.
  • List the surname first for the first author, but the first names first for the other authors.
  • If there are two or more works written by the same author, arrange the works by title (ignore articles such as a or the). For all entries after the first, replace the author's name with a long dash called a 3-em dash.


  • The first line of notes are indented like other paragraphs in the text; all following lines are flush left.
  • Bibliography entries have a hanging indentation - the first line is flush left and following lines are indented the same space as paragraphs.

General notes for Author - Date (Parenthetical citations) style

Order and Style of Elements

  • The order of elements in parenthetical citation style generally follow the same basic pattern-Author-Date-Title-Other Facts of Publicaion
  • When citing in text (In parentheses) use only the first two of those elements-Author-Date unless they cite specific secitons in which case you include Page Numbers
  • Do not use punctation between the Author and Date when citing in text but seperate Page Numbers from Date with a comma
  • Most titles are capitalized sentence style except for magazines and newspapers which use headline styles

Reference List

  • At the end of your paper you will provide a reference list which includes full details of all citatons used in text as well as some that you consulted but did not use
  • Label your reference list as References
  • Your reference list should be listed in strict alphabetical order by Author