BooksJournals/Periodicals/NewspapersWebsitesSocial mediaGovernment sources/industry reportsLegal sourcesConferencesTheses/DissertationsUniversity course materialsData/Figures/ImagesSpeeches/Broadcasts/Audiovisual/Music scoresLive performancesEphemeraKey termsAbbreviations and symbols used in referencingAppendix A - Figure and table captions; music notationsAppendices B & C - Quick guides to referencing articles; in-text citationsAppendix D - Sample reference list
BooksJournals/Periodicals/NewspapersWebsites/e-Book/BlogGovernment sourcesTheses/DissertationsNews SourcesAudiovisual/Music scoresEphemera: Pamphlet/Exhibition CatalogueUniversity lecturesAncient/Sacred TextsPersonal Communiction: Interview/EmailManuscript/Letter/DiaryWork of Art/Image, Graph, Figure, Table
In text citationsAbbreviations used in referencingAudio and Visual mediaBooksConferencesDictionaries/Encyclopedias/GuidesGovernment and other reportsIndustry reportsJournals/PeriodicalsLegal sourcesNewspapers/MagazinesTables and Figures (Images)Theses/DissertationsUniversity course materialsWeb documents, websites and social mediaSample reference list
BooksJournals/PeriodicalsWebsites and Website documentsConferencesTheses / DissertationsPatentsFilmComputer ProgramFigures and TablesReferencing Quick Guide
In-text referencing style: author prominent vs information prominentStandard abbreviations used in the IEEE Reference listStyle overview: common elementsBooksConferencesJournalsPatentsReportsTheses and DissertationsWebsites
Using quotationsBooksEncyclopediasJournals/PeriodicalsWebsitesNewspapersReviewsGovernment publicationsTelevision/Radio BroadcastFilm/VideorecordingSocial mediaThesesLive PerformancesEphemera
In text citationsAudio and visual mediaBooksConferencesGovernment / Technical reportsJournals/PeriodicalsLegal sourcesNewspapersPersonal communicationsReference worksTheses/DissertationsUniversity course materialsWebsites, blogs and wikis
BooksJournalsWebsites/BlogsImages/FiguresAudiovisualDidactic panel at an exhibitionNewspapers/MagazinesOne source quoted in anotherTheses and exegeses
BooksJournals/PeriodicalsWebsitesSocial mediaNews SourcesGovernment sources/industry reportsLegal sourcesConferencesTheses/DissertationsIllustrations/Work of Art/Table/FigureRecordings: Speech/Music/FilmLetter/Manuscript/DiaryPlay/Poem
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Citing and referencing   Tags: citing, reference styles, referencing, style guides  

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers
Last Updated: May 25, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

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Citation styles

This guide includes the styles most commonly used at Monash University

By citing and referencing the material consulted for a piece of academic work you not only enable others to verify facts ideas in your work more easily, but you will also be acting in an ethical and honest manner.

Acknowledgement may be in the form of  in text citations, footnotes, endnotes and/or a bibliography.

Different citing and referencing styles cater for the specific requirements of different disciplines.


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