Health Sciences: Citing and Referencing

Guide to resources for assessment tasks in health issues, health education and public health

How do I cite this?

Citing styles

The Library's citing and referencing webpage includes examples of references in some of the key citation styles.  See also the page for styles recommended by Monash University faculty, school or departments.

APA style is commonly used in the Health Sciences, but check with your Lecturer or Department to ensure you are using the correct style.  APA style is based on the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed).

In the APA tutorial a number of examples are given for citing different types of references.  For reference types that do not have an example provided, you will need to look at the general format specified by APA and modify it for your needs.

Digital Object Identifiers (DOI's)

A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric code for persistent identification of an electronic item on the Internet.

A DOI name may look something like this   DOI:  10.1080/10911359.2011.535733 and may be listed on the front page of an article, or within the database record. 

If you have a DOI and want to see the matching citation (or the full-text if you have access), use a DOI resolver, or try pasting the DOI into a Google search.

Citing an online article where a DOI is not available

APA Style indicates that when no DOI is available for an online article, you should provide the URL of the journal home page. 

The following document outlines how to locate the journal home page using either the library catalogue or using Google.

Who's citing whom?

To find out who's citing whom use the following:

Academic Integrity

In academic writing you are required to acknowledge the sources from which you draw your information.

For more detail see the Academic Integrity tutorial

Read the Monash University Academic Integrity policy

Test your knowledge of academic integrity with this short quiz


Monash University provides EndNote bibliographic software for managing citations and references for postgraduate students and staff.

For more information or to download the software, see the Library's EndNote webpage.

Classes on how to use EndNote are run throughout the year. Check times and locations in the class booking system.

For assistance using EndNote contact your subject librarian Paula Todd (Peninsula) or Cassandra Freeman (Caulfield).  See also contact librarians for the Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences faculty team.