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Nursing and Midwifery: Grey literature

Resources for students and staff

Grey literature

Grey literature is information which has been published informally or non-commercially, or remains unpublished. It can appear in many forms, including government reports, statistics, patents, conference papers and even non-written resources such as posters and infographics.

Grey literature is not usually peer-reviewed, but may still be good, reliable information.

See the PHCRIS Introduction to Accessing the Grey Literature and the HLWiki page on grey literature for a more detailed overview. They are aimed at medical researchers but are relevant to anyone searching for grey literature.

Grey literature can be found  through a number of methods, including:

  • Search engines
  • Databases
  • Grey literature reports, newsletters and directories
  • Websites of relevant organisations

This page lists some resources to help you get started, but is not comprehensive - you'll need to look elsewhere as well.

It's important to approach your search systematically as grey literature can sometimes be difficult to find. Before you start searching, ask yourself:

  • What exactly am I looking for? Be as specific as possible.
    • What do you hope to find out from the grey literature?
    • Are there limits on what you're interested in? e.g. must be about Australia, not other countries
  • Who might produce or collect that kind of information?

This will influence how and where you search. For example, if you wanted to know the most common cause of traffic accidents in Australia over the last ten years, you might start by looking on Australian government websites - there may be official records for that kind of information.


Tips for using search engines:

  • Use multiple search engines - they often give different results.
    • Many search engines modify results based on your history. If this is a problem, try DuckDuckGo, which doesn't track user history.
  • Use subject-specific search engines as well as general ones if possible
  • Try restricting your search to .pdf or .doc files using the advanced search
    • These file types are often used to distribute reports and other documents
  • Restrict your search by domain if appropriate
    • e.g. Australian government websites end with

You should evaluate every source you use, but it's particularly important to do so when using grey literature. The quality of grey literature can vary greatly as it comes from a wide range of sources and doesn't go through the traditional editorial process.

When evaluating grey literature, consider the following criteria:

  • Authority: Who created the source? Are they reputable? Do they have any expertise in the area?
  • Accuracy: Are there any obvious errors? What evidence is offered that the information is reliable?
  • Coverage: Are there any limits or parameters defining content?
  • Objectivity: Why was the source produced? Is it intended to promote a product or opinion?
  • Date: When was the source created or updated? Is there anything more recent?
  • Significance: Who is the source aimed at? Is it detailed or rigorous enough for academic use?

AACODS checklist for evaluation and critical analysis of grey literature published by Flinders University

Selected databases, repositories and website gateways. Hover over the title for more information.
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Selected websites
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Library databases:

Many other databases include conference proceedings, check their descriptions on the databases library guide.


Use Search to find Monash theses, and Trove for other Australian theses. See the theses library guide for international theses and more detailed information.

Government publications:

See the library's government publications guide for more detailed advice on locating documents from Australia and other countries.

Selected Australian government sites:

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Search tools, directories and newsletters:

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Other websites:

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