Citing and referencing: Chicago 17th

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

This guide outlines the convention for referencing resources for the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, including both the notes and bibliography and the author-date systems.

Overview

Chicago Notes and Bibliography: Overview

This guide outlines the convention for referencing resources for the Seventeenth Edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. This new edition of the guide includes expanded information on referencing digital resources. Please note that a citing and referencing guide for the Sixteenth Edition of Chicago is also available in a separate tab, but it will no longer be updated.

This part describes Chicago's notes and bibliography system of documentation. It includes citations presented in footnotes (at the bottom of each page) or endnotes (at the end of a section or document). Citations correspond to entries in the bibliography. 

Basic structure of footnotes

Student assessment tasks often use footnotes, rather than endnotes. The advantage of footnotes is that interested readers can easily see the source details as they read. To create footnotes, identify your sources of information (including quotations, paraphrases and ideas) with superscript reference numbers. These reference numbers begin at 1 and continue consecutively. Always position reference numbers after punctuation. The superscript reference numbers correspond to numbered notes at the bottom of each page. Word processing software generally has an automatic note tool that generates the reference numbers, and if you rearrange the text, the notes automatically follow. 

The first time you cite a source, the note includes the author’s or authors’ names, the title and subtitle, and the publication details following the rule for the specific type of source document. When you cite the same source again, you use shortened notes that only include the author’s surname and the short title (omitting subtitles). The Seventeenth Edition of The Chicago Manual of Style discourages using the abbreviation ibid to refer readers to the previous citation. For quotations and references to specific passages include page numbers in both the first and shortened note. 

Commonly, notes aren’t included in an assignment word count. 

Basic structure of the bibliography

A bibliography at the end of the document provides full details of sources consulted when preparing a document. It lists all the sources cited in the notes. It can also include other sources that you consulted in your research (check your specific assessment task details). Arrange all entries in alphabetical order by the authors’, editors’, or compilers’ surnames. If the author is unknown, arrange the entry in alphabetical order by the title. 

 

Example of reference number and footnote

“The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe.”1

 

______________________

1. John Berger, Ways of Seeing (London: Penguin, 1972), 8.

Example of Bibliography entry

Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London: Penguin, 1972.

 

The full details of the Chicago manual of style 17th edition can be found online here.

Chicago Author-Date: Overview

This guide outlines the convention for referencing resources for the Seventeenth Edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. This new edition of the guide includes expanded information on referencing digital resources. Please note that a citing and referencing guide for the Sixteenth Edition of Chicago is also available in a separate tab, but it will no longer be updated.

This part describes Chicago's author-date system of documentation. It uses parenthetical (i.e. in brackets) citations that correspond to entries in a reference list. Students cite sources within their text stating an author or authors’ surnames and the publication year. A reference list at the end of the document provides full details of all sources cited. Arrange references in alphabetical order by the authors' surnames.

Basic structure of parenthetical citations

Parenthetical citations present authors’ surnames and the year of publication. Position parenthetical citations before punctuation. For quotations and references to specific passages include page numbers following a comma.

Chicago’s author-date system shares many characteristics with its notes and bibliography system. Thus, students may refer to the notes and bibliography system for general patterns of syntax, capitalisation, and punctuation. However, the key difference between the two systems is the positioning of the publication year. As author-date citations state authors’ surnames and the publication year, these two elements appear in this order at the beginning of each reference list entry.

Use semicolons to separate multiple references within one parenthetical citation. Differentiate between works by the same author published in the same year by adding a, b, c, and etcetera. Present multiple works by the same author chronologically in the reference list.

Note that citations include no punctuation between the author’s name and the year of publication.

Rule for Citation

(Author’s Surname Year of Publication)

or

(Author’s Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(McKale 2012)

or

(McKale 2012, 32)

 

Multiple references in one parenthetical citation are separated by semicolons.

Rule for Citation

(Author’s Surname Year of Publication; Author’s Surname Year of Publication; and etcetera)

Example of Citation entry

(Armstrong and Malacinski 1989; Beigl 1989; Pickett and White 1985)

 

Author prominent variation

Where the author’s surname is introduced in the text omit it from the parentheses, and place the citation directly after the name.

Rule for Citation

Author’s name (Year of Publication, Page or Pages) …

Example of Citation entry

McKale (2012) argues that …

 

The full details of the Chicago manual of style 17th edition can be found online here

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