Citing and referencing: Ancient and sacred sources

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Ancient and sacred sources

Classical Greek and Latin sources

Generally classical, ancient and sacred source are cited in notes, but they are not included in bibliographies. Researchers can situate these sources historically, geographically, and etcetera within their text. Rather than using page numbers, classical, ancient, and sacred sources are commonly separated into sections that remain consistent throughout different editions and translations.

Cite classical sources by using book, section, and line to refer to specific passages.

Rule for Note

Note number. Author’s Full Name, Title of Source, Book.Section.Line.

Example of Note entry

1. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 6.11.20. 

 

Sacred sources

Cite sacred sources by using variations of book, chapter, and verse to refer to specific passages. 

Abbreviate the titles of versions and books of the Christian Bible by following advice from Chapter 10 of the Seventeenth Edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.

Rule for Note

Note number. Title of Source Book:Verse

Note number. Abbreviated title of Book Chapter:Verse (Version).

Example of Note entry

1. Koran 19:17–21.

2. Gen. 1:27 (New Revised Standard Version).

 

Shakespeare's plays

Cite Shakespeare's plays by using act, scene, and line to refer to specific passages.  

Rule for Note

Note number. Title of Play, Act.Scene.Line.

Example of Note entry

1. King Lear, 3.2.49–60.

 

 

Ancient or sacred sources published in book form

Students may wish to cite a modern introduction or the details of a specific edition or translation of an ancient or sacred source. They may be required to include all the sources they’ve cited in a bibliography for an assessment task. If so, list the edition, and/or the translator, and the publication details following the patterns outlined in the Books tab. If the source was accessed online, include a URL.

Note that citations can refer to dates that are not contemporaneous with an author’s lifetime, because they represent the year that a source was published and not necessarily when it was written.

Rule for Note

Note number. Author’s Full Name, Title of Book, trans. Translator’s Full Name (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Year of Publication), Page or Pages.

Example of Note entry

1. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, trans. Martin Ostwald (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1962), 34.

Subsequent Note entry

2.  Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, 34.

Rule for Bibliography

Author's Surname, Author’s Given Name. Title of Book. Translated by Translator’s Full Name. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Year of Publication.

Example of Bibliography entry

Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. Translated by Martin Ostwald. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1962.

Classical Greek and Latin sources

Generally classical, ancient and sacred sources are cited in text, but they are not included in reference lists. Researchers can situate these sources historically, geographically, and etcetera within their argument. Rather than using page numbers, classical, ancient, and sacred sources are commonly separated into sections that remain consistent throughout different editions and translations.

Cite classical sources by using book, section, and line to refer to specific passages.

Rule for Citation

(Book.Section.Line)

Example of Citation entry

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics ... (6.11.20) 

 

Sacred sources

Cite sacred sources by using variations of book, chapter, and verse to refer to specific passages. 

Abbreviate the titles of books of the Christian Bible following advice from Chapter 10 of the Seventeenth Edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. Indicate the version of the Bible and other relevant details in the text.

Rule for Citation

(Title of Source Book:Verse)

(Abbreviated title of Book Chapter:Verse).

Example of Citation entry

(Koran 19:17–21)

(Gen. 1:27).

 

Shakespeare's plays

Cite Shakespeare's plays by using act, scene, and line to refer to specific passages.  

Rule for Citation

(Title of Play, Act.Scene.Line)

Example of Citation entry

(King Lear, 3.2.49–60)

 

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