Citing and referencing: Audiovisual media and music scores

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Audiovisual media and music scores

Online video platforms and hosting services: YouTube, Vimeo, Youku or similar, and video streaming platforms: Kanopy or similar

When referencing audiovisual sources, you can list the director, the producer or the performer as the person primarily responsible for the content depending on which is the focus of the media or is most relevant to discussion. Include any other relevant information about the content such as other contributors, the year and location of the production or performance, and any other references that could assist interested readers locate the source. For online video platforms and downloads, list the service or the file format, along with the duration and the URL.

The Chicago Manual of Style does not require that access dates be included in references to formally published electronic and online sources. However, students may be required to include them for assessment tasks.

Rule for Note

Note number. Full Name of the person primarily responsible for the content, their role, Title of content: Subtitle of content (Year of publication of original media), Name of the organisation hosting the media, format, duration, URL.

Example of Note entry

1. Beat Kuert, dir., Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building (2001), Dust and Scratches, Kanopy, online video, 52:04, https://monash.kanopy.com/video/architects-herzog-and-demeuron-alchemy-building-tate-modern-2001.

Subsequent Note entry

2. Kuert, Architects Herzog and de Meuron

Rule for Bibliography

Surname, Given Name of the person the person primarily responsible for the content, their role. Title of content: Subtitle of content. Year of publication of original media. Name of the organisation hosting the media. Format, duration. URL.

Example of Bibliography entry

Kuert, Beat, dir. Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building. 2001. Dust and Scratches, Kanopy. Online video, 52:04. https://monash.kanopy.com/video/architects-herzog-and-demeuron-alchemy-building-tate-modern-2001.

 

In the below example, a 35 mm film produced in 1903 has been viewed within a collection of similar items in MPEG format on the US Library of Congress website. The author, firstly, cites the historical artefact; and secondly, provides a reference to the website that hosts the media today. Note that the reference to the years 1898–1906 is part of the collection title.

Rule for Note

Note number. Full name of the person primarily responsible for the content, Title of content (other relevant information, including the year of production), media, Name of the organisation hosting the media, Title of collection: Subtitle of collection, format, duration, URL.

Example of Note entry

1. A. E. Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron (American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903), 35 mm film, from Library of Congress, The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898–1906, MPEG video, 2:19, http://www.loc.gov/item/00694378.

Subsequent Note entry

2. Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron.

Rule for Bibliography

Surname, given name of the person primarily responsible for the content. Title of content. Other relevant information, year of production. Media. Name of the organisation hosting the media. Title of collection: Subtitle of collection. Format, Duration. URL.

Example of Bibliography entry

Weed, A. E. At the Foot of the Flatiron. American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903. 35 mm film. From Library of Congress. The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898–1906. MPEG video, 2:19. http://www.loc.gov/item/00694378.

 

Media including Blu-ray, DVD, Film, and similar

When referencing audiovisual material accessed on Blu-ray, DVD, celluloid film or similar include a description of the media or format. To reference an individual part or a specific passage in an audiovisual source (for example, a scene from a film) include the title or a description enclosed within quotation marks.

While a note may begin with the title of a source, bibliography entries begin with the person primarily responsible for the content.

Rule for Note

Note number. “Title of the Scene,” Title of Production, directed or equivalent by Surname of the person primarily responsible for the content (Place of publication: Publisher’s Name, Year of publication), format.

or

Note number. Surname of the Person Primarily Responsible for the Content, their role, Title of Production (Place of publication: Publisher’s Name, Year of publication), format.

Example of Note entry

1. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD.

or

2. Alfonso Cuaróndir, dir., Gravity (Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures, 2014), Blu-ray Disc, 1080p HD.

Subsequent Note entry

3. Hitchcock, North by Northwest.

or

4. Cuaróndir, Gravity.

Rule for Bibliography

Surname, Given Name of the person primarily responsible for the content, their role. “Title of Scene.” Title of Production. Place of publication: Publisher’s Name, Year of publication. Format.

or

Surname, Given Name of the person primarily responsible for the content, their role. Title of Production. Place of publication: Publisher’s Name, Year of publication. Format.

Example of Bibliography entry

Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. “Crop Duster Attack.” North by Northwest. 1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000. DVD.

or

Cuarón, Alfonso, dir. Gravity. 2013; Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures, 2014. Blu-ray Disc, 1080p HD.

 

Television: free-to-air, live stream, on-demand, and similar

Rule for Note

Note number. Producer's Full Name, “Title of Episode,” Title of Production, season number, episode number, directed by Director's Full Name, date screened (Place: Publisher, Year), Medium.

Example of Note entry

1. Andrew Knight, “Bad Debts,” Jack Irish, season 1, episode 1, directed by Jeffery Walker, screened October 14, 2012 (Sydney, NSW: ABC TV, 2012), Television Broadcast.

Subsequent Note entry

2. Knight, “Bad Debts”.

Rule for Bibliography

Producer's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Episode,” Production Title, season number, episode number, directed by First and Last Names, date screened (Place: Publisher, Year). Medium.

Example of Bibliography entry

Knight, Andrew. “Bad Debts,” Jack Irish, season 1, episode 1, directed by Jeffery Walker, screened October 14, 2012 (Sydney, NSW: ABC TV, 2012). Television Broadcast.

 

Audio recordings: LP, CD, MP3 or similar, and music streaming platforms

The composer, the producer or the performer may be listed as the person primarily responsible for a audio recording depending on which is the focus of the media or is most relevant to discussion. Include any relevant additional information about the content such as other contributors, the year and location of the recording and any other references that could assist interested readers locate the source. For online platforms and downloads, list the file format or the name of the streaming service.

While a note may begin with the title of a source, bibliography entries begin with the person primarily responsible for the content.

Rule for Note

Note number. Full Name of the person primarily responsible for the content, Title of Recording, other relevant information, Publisher catalogue number, Year published in the relevant format, format.

or

Note number. “Title of Part,” other relevant information, format or Name of the streaming service, track number on Full Name of the person primarily responsible for the content, Title of Recording, Publisher, Year published.

Example of Note entry

1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Don Giovanni, Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir Colin Davis. With Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al., recorded May 1973. Philips 422 541-2, 1991, 3 compact discs.

2. Pink Floyd, Atom Heart Mother, originally released in 1970, Capitol CDP 7463812, 1990, compact disc.

or

3.  “Umbrella,” featuring Jay-Z, MP3 audio, track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad, Island Def Jam, 2007.

4. “Umbrella,” featuring Jay-Z, Spotify, track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad, Island Def Jam, 2007.

Subsequent Note entry

1. Mozart, Don Giovanni.

2. Pink Floyd, Atom Heart Mother.

3. Rihanna,“Umbrella.”

Rule for Bibliography

Surname, Given Name of the person primarily responsible for the content. Title of content. other relevant information. Publisher catalogue number, Year published in the relevant format, format. Any other references such as the original.

or

Surname, Given Name of the person primarily responsible for the content, their role. “Title of Part,” other relevant information, Format or Name of the streaming service. Track number on Full Name of the person primarily responsible for the content if necessary, Title of Recording, Publisher, Year published.

Example of Bibliography entry

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir Colin Davis. With Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al. Recorded May 1973. Philips 422 541-2, 1991, 3 compact discs.

Pink Floyd. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc. Originally released in 1970.

or

Rihanna [Robin Fenty], vocalist. “Umbrella.” Featuring Jay-Z. MP3 audio. Track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad. Island Def Jam, 2007.

Rihanna [Robin Fenty], vocalist. “Umbrella.” Featuring Jay-Z. Spotify. Track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad. Island Def Jam, 2007.

 

Radio and Podcasts

Rule for Note

Note number, Presenter’s Full Name, “Episode Title,” episode number, date aired, in Production Title, Place produced and/or broadcasted: Broadcaster’s Name.

First Presenter’s Full Name and Second Presenter’s Full Name, “Episode Title,” date produced, in Production Title. Produced by Producer’s Full Name. Podcast, File Format. Duration. URL.

Example of Note entry

1. Lynne Malcolm, “The Bilingual Brain,” episode 18, October 21, 2012, in All in the Mind, Sydney: ABC Radio National.

2. Mike Danforth and Ian Chillag, “F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points,” April 21, 2015, in How to Do Everything, produced by Gillian Donovan, podcast, MP3 audio, 18:46, http://www.npr.org/podcasts/510303/how-to-do-everything.

Subsequent Note entry

1. Malcolm, "The Bilingual Brain."

2. Danforth and Chillag, “F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points.”

Rule for Bibliography

Presenter’s Surname, Presenter’s Given Name. “Episode Title.” Episode number. Date aired. In Production Title. Place produced and/or broadcasted: Broadcaster’s Name.

First Presenter’s Surname, First Presenter’s Given Name and Second Presenter’s Full Name. “Episode Title.” Date Produced. In Production Title. Produced by Producer’s Full Name. Podcast, File Format. Duration. URL.

Example of Bibliography entry

Malcolm, Lynne. “The Bilingual Brain.” Episode 18. October 21, 2012. In All in the Mind. Sydney: ABC Radio National.

Danforth, Mike and Ian Chillag. “F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points,” April 21, 2015. In How to Do Everything. Produced by Gillian Donovan. Podcast, MP3 audio, 18:46, http://www.npr.org/podcasts/510303/how-to-do-everything.

 

Music scores

Published Music scores are referenced in the same way as published books.

Rule for Note

Note number. Composer's Full Name, Title of Score, (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Year of Publication), Page or Pages.

Example of Note entry

1. Claude Debussy, Prélude á l’après-midi d’un faune (Paris: Jobert, 1922), 7.

Subsequent Note entry

2. Debussy, Prélude, 9.

Rule for Bibliography

Composer's Surname, Composer's Given Name. Title of Score. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Year of Publication.

Example of Bibliography entry

Debussy, Claude. Prélude á l’après-midi d’un faune. Paris: Jobert, 1922.

Online video platforms and hosting services: YouTube, Vimeo, Youku or similar, and video streaming platforms: Kanopy or similar

When referencing audiovisual sources, you can list the director, the producer or the performer as the person primarily responsible for the content depending on which is the focus of the media or is most relevant to discussion. Include any other relevant information about the content such as other contributors; the year and location of the production or performance; and any other references that could assist interested readers locate the source. For online video platforms and downloads, list the service or the file format, along with the duration and the URL.

The Chicago Manual of Style does not require that access dates be included in references to formally published electronic and online sources. However, students may be required to include them for assessment tasks.

Rule for Citation

(Surname of the Person primarily responsible for the content Year of publication of original media)

Example of Citation entry

(Kuert 2001)

Rule for Reference list

Surname, Given Name of the person the person primarily responsible for the content, their role. Year of publication of original media. Title of content: Subtitle of content. Name of the organisation hosting the media. Format, duration. URL.

Example of Reference list entry

Kuert, Beat, dir. 2001. Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building. Dust and Scratches, Kanopy. Online video, 52:04. https://monash.kanopy.com/video/architects-herzog-and-demeuron-alchemy-building-tate-modern-2001.

 

In the below example, a 35 mm film produced in 1903 has been viewed within a collection of similar items in MPEG format on the US Library of Congress website. The author, firstly, cites the historical artefact; and secondly, provides a reference to the website that hosts the media today. Note that the reference to the years 1898–1906 is part of the collection title.

Rule for Citation

(Full Name of the person primarily responsible for the content Year of publication of original media)

Example of Citation entry

(Weed 1903)

Rule for Reference list

Surname, Given name of the person primarily responsible for the content. Year of production of original media. Title of content. Other relevant information, Media. Name of the organisation hosting the media. Title of collection: Subtitle of collection. Format, Duration. URL.

Example of Reference list entry

Weed, A. E. 1903. At the Foot of the Flatiron. American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 35 mm film. From Library of Congress. The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898–1906. MPEG video, 2:19 at 15 fps. http://www.loc.gov/item/00694378.

 

Media including Blu-ray, DVD, Film, and similar

When referencing audiovisual material accessed on Blu-ray, DVD, celluloid film or similar include a description of the media or format. To reference an individual part or a specific passage in an audiovisual source—for example, a scene from a film—include the a title or description enclosed within quotation marks.

Rule for Citation

(Surname of the Person primarily responsible for the content Year of publication)

Example of Citation entry

(Hitchcock [1959] 2000)

(Cuarón 2013)

Rule for Reference list

Surname, Given Name of the person primarily responsible for the content, their role. Year of publication. “Title of Scene.” Title of Production. Place of publication: Publisher’s Name, Medium.

Example of Reference list entry

Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. (1959) 2000. “Crop Duster Attack.” North by Northwest. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video. DVD.

Cuarón, Alfonso, dir. 2013. Gravity. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Pictures, 2014. Blu-ray Disc, 1080p HD.

 

Television: free-to-air, live stream, on-demand, and similar

Rule for Citation

(Producer’s Surname Year screened)

Example of Citation entry

(Knight 2012)

Rule for Reference list

Producer’s Surname, Producer’s Given Name. Year screened. “Title of Episode,” Title of Production, season number, episode number. Directed by Director’s Full Name. Place of publication: Publisher’s Name, Medium.

Example of Reference list entry

Knight, Andrew. 2012 “Bad Debts.” Jack Irish, season 1, episode 1. Directed by Jeffery Walker. Sydney, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Television Broadcast.

 

Audio recording: LP, CD, MP3 audio or similar, and music streaming platforms

The composer, the producer or the performer may be listed as the person or group primarily responsible for a sound recording depending on which is the focus of the media or is most relevant to discussion. Include any relevant additional information about the content such as other contributors, the year and location of the recording and any other references that could assist interested readers locate the source. For online platforms and downloads, list the service or the file format, along with the duration of the recording.

Rule for Citation

(Surname of the person or Name of the group primarily responsible for the content Year of publication)

Example of Citation entry

(Mozart [1787] 1991)

(Pink Floyd [1970] 1990)

(Rihanna 2007)

Rule for Reference list

Surname, Given Name of the person primarily responsible for the content. Year of publication. Title of Recording, Information including the names of additional contributors and the date and location of the production or performance. Place of publication: Publisher’s Name. Catalogue Number, Medium.

or

Surname, Given Name of the person primarily responsible for the content, their role. Year published. “Title of Part,” other relevant information, Format or Name of the streaming service. Track number on Artist's Full Name, Title of Recording, Publisher.

Example of Reference list entry

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. 1991 Don Giovanni. Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir Colin Davis. With Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al. Recorded May 1973. Amsterdam: Philips 422 541-2, 1991, 3 compact discs.

Pink Floyd. (1970) 1990. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, compact disc.

or

Rihanna [Robin Fenty], vocalist. 2007. “Umbrella.” Featuring Jay-Z. MP3 audio. Track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad. Island Def Jam.

Rihanna [Robin Fenty], vocalist. 2007. “Umbrella.” Featuring Jay-Z. Spotify. Track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad. Island Def Jam.

 

Radio and Podcasts

Rule for Citation

(Presenter’s Surname Year aired)

(First Presenter’s Surname and Second Presenter’s Surname Year produced)

Example of Citation entry

(Malcolm 2012)

(Danfort and Chillag 2015)

Rule for Reference list

Presenter’s Surname, Presenter’s Given Name. Year aired. “Episode Title.” Episode number. Date aired, including year. In Production Title. Place produced and/or broadcasted: Broadcaster’s Name.

First Presenter’s Surname, First Presenter’s Given Name and Second Presenter’s Full Name. Year produced. “Episode Title.” Date produced, including year. In Production Title. Produced by Producer’s Full Name. Podcast, file format. Duration. URL.

Example of Reference list entry

Malcolm, Lynne. 2012. “The Bilingual Brain.” Episode 18. October 21, 2012. In All in the Mind. Sydney: ABC Radio National.

Danforth, Mike and Ian Chillag. 2015. “F-Bombs, Chicken, and Exclamation Points,” April 21, 2015, in How to Do Everything, produced by Gillian Donovan. Podcast, MP3 audio, 18:46, http://www.npr.org/podcasts/510303/how-to-do-everything.

 

Music scores

Published Music scores are referenced in the same way as published books.

Rule for Citation

(Composer's Surname, Year of publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation

(Debussy 1922, 7)

Rule for Reference list

Composer's Surname, Composer's Given Name, Year of publication. Title of Score. Place of publication: Publisher’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

Debussy, Claude. 1922. Prélude á l’après-midi d’un faune. Paris: Jobert.

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