Citing and referencing: Interviews and personal communication

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Interviews and personal communication

 

Citations for interviews include the names of the interviewee and interviewer, brief information about these people where relevant, publication details (or transcript locations), and the date of the interview. Published interviews generally follow the patterns of the document types they are published within. 

References to interviews consulted online can include a DOI or a URL. If allocated, the DOI is the preferred electronic resource identifier. Note that a DOI may have the form of a URL. If so, it is included in full. The Chicago Manual of Style does not require that access dates be included in references to formally published electronic and online sources. However, students may be required to include them for assessment tasks.

Published interviews consulted online

Published interviews can be cited in the same way as news sources, journal articles, or book chapters.

Rule for Note

Note Number. Full Name of Interviewee, "Title of Interview," interview by Interviewer's Full Name, Publication Title, Publication date, URL.

Example of Note entry

1. Juan Guaidó, “Venezuela’s Juan Guaidó Tells TIME How He Hopes to Win Over the Military and Remove Nicolas Maduro,” interview by Ciara Nugent, Time (February 1, 2019), https://time.com/5518443/juan-guaido-interview-venezuela/.

Subsequent Note entry

2. Guaidó, interview.

Rule for Bibliography

Interviewee’s Surname, Given Name. "Title of Interview". By Interviewers Full Name. Publication Title. Interview date. URL.

Example of Bibliography entry

Guaidó, Juan. “Venezuela’s Juan Guaidó Tells TIME How He Hopes to Win Over the Military and Remove Nicolas Maduro.” By Ciara Nugent, Time. February 1, 2019. https://time.com/5518443/juan-guaido-interview-venezuela/.

 

Interviews in news broadcasts aired on television, radio or similar, downloaded, or accessed in databases

Rule for Note

Note Number. Interviewee's Full Name, interview by Interviewer's Full Name, Title of Program, date of broadcast, format or type of broadcast. URL.

Example of Note entry

1. Claude Choules, interview by Geoff HutchinsonABC News Canberra ACT, ABC, March 3, 2011, podcast, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-03-03/last-living-wwi-veterans-last-interview/2704724.

Subsequent Note entry

2. Choules, interview.

Rule for Bibliography

"Title Interviewee's SurnameGiven Name. Interview by Interviewer's Full Name. Title of ProgramNetwork. Date of broadcast. Format or type of broadcast. URL.

Example of Bibliography entry

Choules, Claude. Interview by Geoff HutchinsonABC News Canberra ACT, ABC. March 3, 2011. Podcast. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-03-03/last-living-wwi-veterans-last-interview/2704724.

Unpublished interviews

Unpublished interviews are cited in notes but are not listed in the bibliography. For interviews in an archive, follow the patterns in the Archival material guide.

Rule for Note

Note Number. Interviewee's First and Last Names, interview by Interviewer's First and Last Names, (Location of interview, Date).

Example of Note entry

1. Erik Beyersdorf, interview by Kurt Weil (Melbourne, October 21, 2012).

Subsequent Note entry

2. Beyersdorf, Interview.

Personal communications

Personal communications via mediums including letter, email, text message, or social media can be cited in a note or within the text, but are not listed in the bibliography. 

Rule for Note

Note Number. Correspondent's Full Name, medium if relevant, date.

Example of Note entry

1. Karl Sanders, email correspondence with author, October 22, 2012.

Subsequent Note entry

2. Sanders, email.

 

Published interviews

Published interviews generally follow the patterns of the document types they are published within. References to interviews consulted online can include a DOI or a URL. If allocated, the DOI is the preferred electronic resource identifier. Note that a DOI may have the form of a URL. If so, it is included in full. The Chicago Manual of Style does not require that access dates be included in references to formally published electronic and online sources. However, students may be required to include them for assessment tasks. 

Rule for Citation

(Interviewee's Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(Bellour 1979, 91)

Rule for Reference list

Interviewee's Surname, Interviewee's Given Name. Year of Interview. “Title of Interview: Subtitle of Interview.” By Interviewer’s Full Name. Title of Publication Volume Number (Issue Number or Season): Page Range of Interview. DOI or  URL.

Example of Reference list entry

Bellour, Raymond. 1979. “Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour.” By Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura 3–4 (Summer 1979): 89–94. Accessed June 27, 2018. read-dukeupress-edu.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/camera-obscura/article/1-2/3-1%20(3-4)/70-103/31319.

 

Unpublished interviews and personal communication

Unpublished interviews and personal communication are not included in the reference list, though each person cited must be fully identified in the text. The citation includes the full name of the person concerned, followed by a comma, and the abbreviation pers. comm., personal communication, or a description. The date the interview took place is preceded by a comma. Include any other relevant details within the text.

Rule for Citation

(Interviewee's Surname, personal communication abbreviated as pers. comm.)

or

(Interviewee's Surname, description, date of interview)

Example of Citation entry

(Julie Cantor, pers. comm.)

or

(Brenda Hasbrouck, text message to author, May 5, 2017)

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