Citing and referencing: Journals and periodicals

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Journals and periodicals

Journal articles consulted online

Peer-reviewed journal articles are scholarly periodical publications that report in-depth research on a topic and include references to other sources. The basic elements of bibliographical references to peer-reviewed journal articles in Chicago’s notes and bibliography system include the author’s name, the title of the article, the title of the journal, the volume, the issue, and the date. For quotations and references to specific passages in a journal article, only the page or pages concerned are given in the footnote. In references to the article as a whole (as in a bibliography), first and last pages are given.

References to journal articles consulted online include a URL or a persistent Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If allocated, the DOI is the preferred electronic resource identifier. Note that a DOI may have the form of a URL. If so, it is included in full.

The Chicago Manual of Style does not require that access dates be included in references to formally published online sources. However, students may be required to include them for assessment tasks.

Rule for Note

Note number. Author’s Full Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Page or Pages, DOI.

or

Note number. Author’s Full Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Page or Pages, URL.

Example of Note entry

1. Jennifer Glass and Philip Levchak, “Red States, Blue States, and Divorce: Understanding the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Regional Variation in Divorce Rates,” American Journal of Sociology 119, no. 4 (2014): 1002-46, https://doi.org/10.1086/674703.

or

2. Eliyahu Stern, “Genius and Demographics in Modern Jewish History,” Jewish Quarterly Review 101, no. 3 (Summer 2011): 348, http://www.jstor-org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/stable/41300143.

Subsequent Note entry

3. Glass and Levchak, “Red States, Blue States, and Divorce," 1002-46.

4. Stern, “Genius and Demographics in Modern Jewish History,” 352.

Rule for Bibliography

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Article page range. DOI.

or

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Article page range. URL.

Example of Bibliography entry

Glass, Jennifer, and Philip Levchak. “Red States, Blue States, and Divorce: Understanding the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Regional Variation in Divorce Rates.” American Journal of Sociology 119, no. 4 (2014): 1002–46. https://doi.org/10.1086/674703.

or

Stern, Eliyahu. “Genius and Demographics in Modern Jewish History.” Jewish Quarterly Review 101, no. 3 (Summer 2011): 347–82. http://www.jstor-org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/stable/41300143.

 

Multiple authors

List up to three authors in both the notes and the bibliography. Above three authors, list only the first followed by et al. in the notes and all in the bibliography. Above ten authors, list only the first followed et al. in the notes and only the first seven followed by et al. in the bibliography.

Note that multiple authors are listed in the same order as they appear on the title page, which may not necessarily be alphabetical order. Note also that for a journal article with two or more authors, only the first-listed name is inverted in the bibliography. 

Rule for Note

List two or three authors:

Note Number. First Author's Full Name, Second Author's Full Name, and Third Author's Full Name. “Title of Article,” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Page or Pages, DOI. 

For four or more authors list the first author followed by et al.

Note Number. First Author's Full Name et al. “Title of Article,” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Page or Pages, DOI.

Example of Note entry

1. Dolores Hayden and Gwendolyn Wright, “Architecture and Urban Planning,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 1, no. 4 (Summer, 1976): 928, https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/10.1086/493309.

2. Natalia V. Gmuca et al., “The Fat and the Furriest: Morphological Changes in Harp Seal Fur with Ontogeny,” Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 88, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 158, https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/10.1086/680080.

Subsequent Note entry

3. Hayden and Wright, "Architecture and Urban Planning," 929.

4. Gmuca et al., “Harp Seal Fur,” 160.

Rule for Bibliography

List all authors up to ten in the bibliography:

First Author's Surname, First Author’s Given Name and Second Author's Full Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Article page range. DOI.

First Author’s Surname, First Author’s Given Name, Subsequent Authors’ Full Names. "Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Article page range. DOI.

For articles with over ten authors list only the first seven followed by et al.

Example of Bibliography entry

Hayden, Dolores and Gwendolyn Wright. “Architecture and Urban Planning.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 1, no. 4 (Summer, 1976): 923–933. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/10.1086/493309.

Gmuca, Natalia V., Linnea E. Pearson, Jennifer M. Burns, and Heather E. M. Liwanag. “The Fat and the Furriest: Morphological Changes in Harp Seal Fur with Ontogeny.” Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 88, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 158–66. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/10.1086/680080

 

Print journal articles

Cite journal articles accessed in print in the same way as journal articles accessed online, but without a DOI or URL.

Rule for Note

Note number. Author’s Full Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Page or Pages.

Example of Note entry

1. Rosalind Krauss, "Perpetual Inventory," October, no. 88 (Spring 1999): 90.

Subsequent Note entry

2. Krauss, "Perpetual Inventory," 111.

Rule for Bibliography

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Month or Season and/or Year of Publication): Article page range.

Example of Bibliography entry

Krauss, Rosalind. "Perpetual Inventory." October, no. 88 (Spring 1999): 86–116.

 

Forthcoming journal articles

Rule for Note

Note number. Author’s Full Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Publication Volume Number (forthcoming).

Rule for Bibliography

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number (forthcoming).

 

Journal articles consulted online

Peer-reviewed journal articles are scholarly periodical publications that develop in-depth research on a topic and include citations to other sources. Unlike in Chicago’s notes and bibliography system, the year of publication appears directly after the author’s name in the reference list. Accordingly, the volume and issue numbers of journals are presented differently too. While citations to journal articles may only give specific pages, the reference list entry is made to the article as a whole and includes the first and last page numbers.

References to journal articles consulted online include a URL or a persistent Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If allocated, the DOI is the preferred electronic resource identifier. Note that a DOI may have the form of a URL. If so, it is included in full.

The Chicago Manual of Style does not require that access dates be included in references to formally published online sources. However, students may be required to include them for assessment tasks.

Rule for Citation

(Author’s Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(Stern 2011, 355)

Rule for Reference list

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number (Issue Number, Month, or Season): Article Page Range. DOI.

or

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number (Issue Number, Month, or Season): Article Page Range. URL.

Example of Reference list entry

Glass, Jennifer, and Philip Levchak. 2014. “Red States, Blue States, and Divorce: Understanding the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Regional Variation in Divorce Rates.” American Journal of Sociology 119 (4): 1002–46. https://doi.org/10.1086/674703.

or

Stern, Eliyahu. 2011. “Genius and Demographics in Modern Jewish History.” Jewish Quarterly Review 101 (Summer): 347–82. http://www.jstor-org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/stable/41300143.

 

Multiple authors

List up to three authors in both the citation and the reference list. For four or more authors, list only the first followed by et al. in the citation and all in the bibliography. Above ten authors, only the first seven followed by et al. in the bibliography.

Note that multiple authors are listed in the same order as they appear on the title page, which may not necessarily be alphabetical order. Note also that for a journal article with two or more authors, only the first-listed name is inverted in the bibliography. 

Rule for Citation

(Authors' Surnames Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

(First Author's Surnames et al. Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(Hayden and Wright 1976, 925)

(Gmuca et al. 2015, 162)

Rule for Reference list

First Author's Surname, First Author’s Given Name and Second Author's Full Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Issue Number, Month, or Season): Article page range. DOI.

First Author’s Surname, First Author’s Given Name, Subsequent Authors’ Full Names. Year of Publication. "Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Issue Number, Month, or Season): Article page range. DOI.

Example of Reference list entry

Hayden, Dolores and Gwendolyn Wright. 1976. “Architecture and Urban Planning.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 1, no. 4 (Summer): 923–933. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/10.1086/493309.

Gmuca, Natalia V., Linnea E. Pearson, Jennifer M. Burns, and Heather E. M. Liwanag. 2015. “The Fat and the Furriest: Morphological Changes in Harp Seal Fur with Ontogeny.” Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 88, no. 2 (March/April): 158–66. https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/10.1086/680080

 

Print journal articles

Cite journal articles accessed in print in the same way as journal articles accessed online, but without a DOI or URL.

Rule for Citation

(Author’s Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(Krauss 1999, 91)

Rule for Reference list

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Publication Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Issue Number, Month, or Season): Article page range.

Example of Reference list entry

Krauss, Rosalind. 1999. "Perpetual Inventory." October, no. 88 (Spring): 86–116.

 

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