Citing and referencing: Visual material and captions

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Visual material and captions

Incorporating captions with illustrations

When including illustrations of diagrams, graphs, maps, photographs, and etcetera within texts, a caption provides a description or an explanation of the contents of the illustration. Captions are usually positioned below the illustration and include a figure number. To refer to illustrations as they are introduced in the text, cite the figure number in parentheses (abbreviated as fig.). References to visual material consulted online can include a URL. Spatial indicators such as “clockwise from left”, “left to right” or “top to bottom” are italicised within parentheses.

Rule for Caption

Figure Number. Description or explanation.

Example of Caption entry

Figure 1. Palace of the Governors, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Undated photograph, circa 1900.

Figure 2. Schematic block diagram showing upper plate (top) and lower plate (bottom) of the Battle Lake thrust-tear fault system.

Text references to illustrations

Refer to illustrations as that are introduced in the text by the figure number abbreviated as fig.  

(fig.)

 

Incorporating captions with illustrations of artworks

When illustrations of artworks are included within texts, a caption provides a reference to the artwork. Captions are usually positioned below the illustration and preceded by a figure number. To refer to illustrations as they are introduced in the text, cite the figure number in parentheses (abbreviated as fig.). Figure numbers can also correspond to entries in a list of figures, which includes further details about the artwork.

For photographs showing details, artwork documentation, film stills or exhibition installations follow the second example in the "rule for caption" section of the table below.

Rule for Caption

Figure Number. Artist’s Full Name, Title of Artwork, Year of production.

Figure Number. Artist’s or Artists’ Full Name or Names, Description of documentation or representation Title of Artwork, Artworks or Exhibition, Year of production.

Example of Caption entry

Figure 1. Rose Nolan, Give or Take. 2017.

Figure 2. Yayoi Kusama with Infinity Mirror Room: Phalli's Field, Castellane Gallery, New York, 1965.

Figure 3. Eija-Liisa Ahtila, production still from The House, 2002.

Text references to illustrations

Refer to illustrations as that are introduced in the text by the figure number abbreviated as fig.   

(fig.)

Rule for List of Figures

Figure Number. Artist’s Full Name. Title of Artwork. Year of production. Medium, dimensions. Collection, Place of collection. Acquisition details. Courtesy line. Photographic credit.

Figure Number. Artist’s or Artists’ Full Name or Names. Description of documentation or representation Title of Artwork or Artworks or Exhibition. Medium, Relevant details including duration. Collection, Place of collection. Acquisition details. Courtesy line. Photographic credit. Copyright information.

Example of List of Figures entry

Figure 1. Rose Nolan, Give or Take, 2017. Red and white ceramic tiles, 300 x 1,385 cm. Monash University Collection, Melbourne. Monash University Public Art Commission, 2017. Photograph: Andrew Curtis.

Figure 2. Yayoi Kusama with Infinity Mirror Room: Phalli's Field, Castellane Gallery, New York, 1965. Image courtesy: Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo. © Yayoi Kusama, Yayoi Kusama Studio inc.

Figure 2. Eija-Liisa Ahtila, production still from The House, 2002. Super 16 mm colour film transferred to a 3-channel video, 14 minute loop. Edition five of five. Jointly acquired by The Art Institute of Chicago, Contemporary Art Discretionary Fund and W.L. Mead Endowment; and the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, purchased with funds provided by the Acquisition and Collection Committee and Bob Tuttle, 2004. © 2002 Crystal Eye, Helsinki.

Works of art, design, and architecture

References to works of art, design and architecture are commonly presented within the text and include the artist’s or designer’s name, the full title of the work and the year it was created. Other details including media, exhibitions and collections can be narrated where relevant. When visual material of this kind is the focus of discussion or analysis, an illustration is commonly included with an accompanying caption. If a citation is needed, follow the patterns below. The dimensions of artworks are conventionally ordered by height, width, depth. References to visual material consulted online can include a URL.

Rule for Note

Note number. Artist’s Full Name,Title of Artwork, Year of production, medium, dimensions.

Example of Note entry

1. Marcel Breuer, Club Chair (Wassily Chair or B3), 1925–26, chrome-plated tubular steel and canvas upholstery, 72 x 78 x 71 cm.

2. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona Pavilion, Barcelona, 1929.

3. Yayoi Kusama, Infinity Mirror Room: Phalli’s Field, 1965, sewn stuffed fabric, mirrors, 250 x 455 x 455 cm.

4. Bruce Nauman, Live-Taped Video Corridor, 1970, wallboard, video camera, two video monitors, videotape player, videotape, dimensions variable.

5. Eija-Liisa Ahtila, The House, 2002, super 16mm colour film transferred to a 3-channel video, 14 minute loop.

6. Rose Nolan, Give or Take, 2017, red and white ceramic tiles, 300 x 1,385 cm.

Rule for Bibliography

Artist’s Surname, Artist’s Given Name. Year of production. Title of Artwork. Medium, dimensions. Collection or exhibition, Place of collection or exhibition if applicable.

Example of Bibliography entry

Breuer, Marcel. Club Chair (Wassily Chair or B3). 1925–26. Chrome-plated tubular steel and canvas upholstery, 72 x 78 x 71 cm.

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig. Barcelona Pavilion. Barcelona, 1929.

Kusama, Yayoi. Infinity Mirror Room: Phalli’s Field. 1965. Sewn stuffed fabric, mirrors, 250 x 455 x 455 cm. Castellane Gallery, New York.

Nauman, Bruce. Live-Taped Video Corridor. 1970. Wallboard, video camera, two video monitors, videotape player, videotape, dimensions variable. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Ahtila, Eija-Liisa. The House. 2002. Super 16mm colour film transferred to a 3-channel video, 14 minute loop. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.

Nolan, Rose. Give or Take. 2017. Red and white ceramic tiles, 300 x 1,385 cm. Monash University, Melbourne.

 

Referencing illustrations including artworks, diagrams, graphs, maps, photographs, or similar

When citing illustrations sourced from publications, refer to the publication itself and then state the type and the figure number of the illustration within the source. Only list the publication in the bibliography.

Rule for Note

Note number. Author’s or Editor’s Full Name their role, Title of Publication: Subtitle of Publication (Place of publication: Publisher’s Name, Year of publication), illustration type and number.

Example of Note entry

1. Richard Sobel ed., Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid (Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993), 87, table 5.3.

Rule for Bibliography

Author’s or Editor’s Surname, Given Name their role. Title of Publication: Subtitle of Publication. Place of publication: Publisher’s Name,Year of publication.

Example of Bibliography entry

Sobel, Richard ed., Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid. Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993.

Incorporating captions with illustrations

When including illustrations of diagrams, graphs, maps, photographs, and etcetera within texts, a caption provides a description or an explanation of the contents of the illustration. Captions are usually positioned below the illustration and include a figure number. To refer to illustrations as they are introduced in the text, cite the figure number in parentheses (abbreviated as fig.). References to visual material consulted online can include a URL. Spatial indicators such as “clockwise from left”, “left to right” or “top to bottom” are italicised within parentheses.

Rule for Caption

Figure Number. Description or explanation.

Example of Caption entry

Figure 1. Palace of the Governors, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Undated photograph, circa 1900.

Figure 2. Schematic block diagram showing upper plate (top) and lower plate (bottom) of the Battle Lake thrust-tear fault system.

Text references to illustrations

Refer to illustrations as that are introduced in the text by the figure number abbreviated as fig.  

(fig.)

 

Incorporating captions with illustrations of artworks

When illustrations of artworks are included within texts, a caption provides a reference to the artwork. Captions are usually preceded by a figure number and positioned below the illustration. To refer to illustrations as they are introduced in the text, cite the figure number in parentheses, abbreviated as fig. Figure numbers can also correspond to entries in a list of figures, which includes further details about the artwork.

For photographs showing details, artwork documentation, film stills or exhibition installations follow the second example in the table below.

Rule for Caption

Figure Number. Artist’s Full Name, Title of Artwork, Year of production.

Figure Number. Artist’s or Artists’ Full Name or Names, Description of documentation or representation Title of Artwork, Artworks or Exhibition, Year of production.

Example of Caption entry

Figure 1. Rose Nolan, Give or Take. 2017.

Figure 2. Yayoi Kusama with Infinity Mirror Room: Phalli's Field, Castellane Gallery, New York, 1965.

Figure 3. Eija-Liisa Ahtila, production still from The House, 2002.

Text references to illustrations

Refer to illustrations as that are introduced in the text by the figure number abbreviated as fig.   

(fig.)

Rule for List of Figures

Figure Number. Artist’s Full Name. Title of Artwork. Year of production. Medium, dimensions. Collection, Place of collection. Acquisition details. Courtesy line. Photographic credit.

Figure Number. Artist’s or Artists’ Full Name or Names. Description of documentation or representation Title of Artwork or Artworks or Exhibition. Medium, Relevant details including duration. Collection, Place of collection. Acquisition details. Courtesy line. Photographic credit. Copyright information.

Example of List of Figures entry

Figure 1. Rose Nolan, Give or Take, 2017. Red and white ceramic tiles, 300 x 1,385 cm. Monash University Collection, Melbourne. Monash University Public Art Commission, 2017. Photograph: Andrew Curtis.

Figure 2. Yayoi Kusama with Infinity Mirror Room: Phalli's Field, Castellane Gallery, New York, 1965. Image courtesy: Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo. © Yayoi Kusama, Yayoi Kusama Studio inc.

Figure 2. Eija-Liisa Ahtila, production still from The House, 2002. Super 16 mm colour film transferred to a 3-channel video, 14 minute loop. Edition five of five. Jointly acquired by The Art Institute of Chicago, Contemporary Art Discretionary Fund and W.L. Mead Endowment; and the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, purchased with funds provided by the Acquisition and Collection Committee and Bob Tuttle, 2004. © 2002 Crystal Eye, Helsinki.

Works of art, design, and architecture

References to works of art, design and architecture are commonly presented within the text and include the artist’s or designer’s name, the full title of the work and the year it was created. Other details including media, exhibitions and collections can be narrated where relevant. When visual material of this kind is the focus of discussion or analysis, an illustration is commonly included with an accompanying caption. If a citation is needed, follow the patterns below. The dimensions of artworks are conventionally ordered by height, width, depth. References to visual material consulted online can include a URL.

Rule for Citation

(Artist’s Surname Year of production)

Example of Citation entry

(Breuer 1925)

(Mies van der Rohe 1929)

(Kusama 1965)

(Nauman 1970)

(Ahtila 2002)

(Nolan 2017)

Rule for Reference list

Artist’s Surname, Artist’s Given Name. Year of production. Title of Artwork. Medium, dimensions. Collection or exhibition, Place of collection or exhibition.

Example of Reference list entry

Breuer, Marcel. 1925–26. Club Chair (Wassily Chair or B3). Chrome-plated tubular steel and canvas upholstery, 72 x 78 x 71 cm.

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig. 1929. Barcelona Pavilion. Barcelona.

Kusama, Yayoi. 1965. Infinity Mirror Room: Phalli’s Field. Sewn stuffed fabric, mirrors, 250 x 455 x 455 cm. Castellane Gallery, New York.

Nauman, Bruce. 1970. Live-Taped Video Corridor. Wallboard, video camera, two video monitors, videotape player, videotape, dimensions variable. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Ahtila, Eija-Liisa. 2002. The House. Super 16mm colour film transferred to a 3-channel video, 14 minute loop. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.

Nolan, Rose. 2017. Give or Take. Red and white ceramic tiles, 300 x 1,385 cm. Monash University, Melbourne.

 

Referencing illustrations including artworks, diagrams, graphs, maps, photographs, or similar

When citing illustrations sourced from publications, refer to the publication itself and then state the type and the figure number of the illustration within the source. Only list the publication in the reference list.

Rule for Citation

(Author’s or Editor’s Surname Year of publication, Page or Pages, illustration type and number)

Example of Citation entry

(Sobel 1993, 87, table 5.3)

Rule for Reference list

Author’s or Editor’s Surname, Given Name their role. Year of publication. Title of Publication: Subtitle of Publication. Place of publication: Publisher’s name.

Example of Reference list entry

Sobel, Richard ed., 1993. Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid. Boston: Rowman and Littlefield.

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