Citing and referencing: Ancient and sacred sources

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Ancient and sacred sources

Classical Greek and Latin sources

Generally classical, ancient and sacred sources are cited in text, but they are not included in reference lists. Researchers can situate these sources historically, geographically, and etcetera within their argument. Rather than using page numbers, classical, ancient, and sacred sources are commonly separated into sections that remain consistent throughout different editions and translations.

Cite classical sources by using book, section, and line to refer to specific passages.

Rule for Citation


Example of Citation entry

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics ... (6.11.20) 


Sacred sources

Cite sacred sources by using variations of book, chapter, and verse to refer to specific passages. 

Abbreviate the titles of books of the Christian Bible following advice from Chapter 10 of the Seventeenth Edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. Indicate the version of the Bible and other relevant details in the text.

Rule for Citation

(Title of Source Book:Verse)

(Abbreviated title of Book Chapter:Verse).

Example of Citation entry

(Koran 19:17–21)

(Gen. 1:27).


Shakespeare's plays

Cite Shakespeare's plays by using act, scene, and line to refer to specific passages.  

Rule for Citation

(Title of Play, Act.Scene.Line)

Example of Citation entry

(King Lear, 3.2.49–60)