Citing and referencing: Books

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Books

  • One author
  • Multiple authors
  • Organisations in the place of an author
  • Edited books
  • Chapters in edited books
  • Reprints and modern editions (when the original year of publication is relevant)
  • Books with an author and a translator
  • Exhibition catalogues
  • A primary source quoted in a secondary source
  • Electronic books (e-books) and books consulted online

 

One author

The basic elements of references to books in Chicago’s author-date system include the author’s name, the year of publication, the title, the place of publication, and the publisher’s name. These elements appear in the same order as they appear on the title page of the source. They allow interested readers to easily locate referenced sources. Citations, within the text, present the author’s surname and the year of publication. For quotations and references to specific passages citations also include page numbers.


Note that unlike Chicago's notes and bibliography system, the year of publication appears directly after the author's name in the reference list.

Rule for Citation

(Author’s Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(McCune 2014, 32)

Rule for Reference list

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

McCune, Jeffrey Q., Jr. 2014. Sexual Discretion: Black Masculinity and the Politics of Passing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Multiple authors

Note that multiple authors are listed in the same order as they appear on the title page, which may not necessarily be alphabetical order. Note that for books with two or more authors, only the first-listed name is inverted in the reference list.

Rule for Citation

For two authors:

(First Author’s Surname and Second Author’s Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

For three authors:

(First Author’s Surname, Second Author’s Surname, and Third Author’s Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

For four or more authors:

(First Author’s Surname  et al. Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(Suhrke and Adelman 1999, 43–45)

(Laumann et al. 1994, 4)

Rule for Reference list

First Author’s Surname, First Author’s Given Name, and Subsequent Authors’ Full Names. Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

Suhrke, Astri, and Howard Adelman. 1999. The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis From Uganda to Zaire. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael and Stuart Michaels. 1994. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Organisation in the place of an author

For sources that are published by an organisation and that do not include a person’s name on the title page, cite the organisation in the place of an author. To facilitate shorter parenthetical citations, an organisation may be cited under their acronym. In this case also alphabetise the source under the acronym in the reference list.

Note that in the text, terms that can be abbreviated as an acronym are spelled out in the first instance followed by the abbreviated form enclosed in parentheses, subsequent instances use the abbreviated form alone.

Rule for Citation

(Organisation’s Name Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

or

(Organisation’s Acronym Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 1998, 4)

or

(USHMM 1998, 4)

Rule for Reference list

Organisation’s Name. Year of Publication Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.

or

Acronym (Organisation’s Name). Year of Publication Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 1998. Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto. Boston, MA: Little Brown and Company.

or

USHMM (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum). 1998. Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto. Boston, MA: Little Brown and Company.

‚Äč

 

Edited books

Note that works prepared by multiple editors follow the same patterns as those prepared by multiple authors.

Rule for Citation

(Editor’s Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Note: do not include abbreviations such as ed. in the citation.

Example of Citation entry

(Watts 2003, 73)

Rule for Reference list

Editor’s Surname, Editor’s Given Name, ed. Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

Watts, Margit Misangyi, ed. 2003.Technology: Taking the Distance out of Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

Chapters in edited books

When a chapter in an edited multi-author book is relevant cite the author of the chapter in the citation.  In the reference list, reference the chapter author along with the chapter’s title before referencing the book as a whole. For quotations and references to specific passages cite the page number in the footnote, but indicate the chapter's inclusive range of pages in the reference list.

Rule for Citation

(Chapter Author’s Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(Lucas 1998, 56)

Rule for Reference list

Chapter Author’s Surname, Chapter Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. “Chapter Title.” In Title of Book: Subtitle of Book, edited by Editor’s Full Name, Chapter Page Range. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

Lucas, Colin. 1998. “Nobles, Bourgeois and the Origins of the French Revolution.” In The French Revolution: Recent Debates and New Controversies, edited by Gary Kates, 44–67. London: Routledge.

 

Reprints and modern editions (when the original year of publication is relevant)

To emphasise the historical context of a reissued publication, include the year the text was first published enclosed within square brackets in the citation and in parentheses in the reference list. Note that the citation refers to the modern edition.

Rule for Citation

(Author’s Surname [Original Year of Publication] Year of Publication, Page or Pages of the Modern Edition)

Example of Citation entry

(Austin [1813] 2003, 74)

Rule for Reference list

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. (Original Year of Publication) Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

Austin, Jane. (1813) 2003. Pride and Prejudice. London: T. Egerton. Reprint, New York: Penguin Classics.

 

 

Books with an author and a translator

Rule for Citation

(Author’s Surname Year of Publication of Translation, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(García Márquez 1988, 242–55)

Rule for Reference list

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Translated by Translator’s Full Name. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

García Márquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape.

 

 

Exhibition catalogues

Exhibition catalogues are referenced in the same way as other published books. Specific essays may be referenced like chapters in edited books. If the author is unknown, exhibition catalogues may be referenced by the title. References to such sources also list the exhibition and the institution with which the publication is associated.

Rule for Citation

(Chapter Author’s Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

or

(Short form of the title set in italics Year of Publication)

Example of Citation entry

(Friedman 2018)

or

(Mary Cassatt 1998)

Rule for Reference list

Chapter Author’s Surname, Chapter Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. “Chapter Title.” In Title of Catalogue. Institution’s Name in place of an editor. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name. Published in conjunction with the exhibition of the same name, shown at Institution’s Name.

or

Title of Catalogue. Year of Publication. Edited by Editor’s Full Name. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name. Published in conjunction with the exhibition of the same name, shown at Institution’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

Friedman, Samantha. 2018. “Inner and Outer Worlds.” In MoMA at NGV: 130 Years of Modern and Contemporary Art. National Gallery of Victoria and The Museum of Modern Art. 92–115. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria. Published in conjunction with the exhibition of the same name, shown at the National Gallery of Victoria.

or

Mary Cassatt: Modern Woman. Edited by Judith A. Barter. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, in association with Harry N. Abrams, 1998. Published in conjunction with the exhibition of the same name, shown at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the National Gallery in Washington, DC, and the Art Institute of Chicago.

 

 

A primary source quoted by a secondary source

Consulting and referencing primary sources is always preferable. However, if such material is only available in a secondary source then introduce the primary source in the text and note that the source is “quoted in” the secondary source in the citation. Include the secondary source only in the reference list.

Rule for Citation

(quoted in Surname of the Author of the secondary source Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

In The Memoirs of General Lord Ismay published in 1960 (quoted in Holland 2010) Ismay states that …

Rule for Reference list

Surname, Given Name of the Author of the secondary source. Year of Publication. Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.

Example of Reference list entry

Holland, James. 2010. The Battle of Britain. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

 

 

Electronic books (e-books) and books consulted online

Electronic books are referenced in the same way as print books with the addition of an application, device, or file format reference, for example, iBooks, Kindle edition, Palm e-book, PDF e-book, and etcetera. Many e-books do not have fixed page numbers. In this case, use other locaters such as a chapter number or a section heading instead.

References to books consulted online include a URL or a persistent Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If allocated, the DOI is the preferred electronic resource identifier. Note that a DOI may have the form of a URL. If so, it is included in full.

The Chicago Manual of Style does not require that access dates be included in references to formally published electronic and online sources. However, students may be required to include them for assessment tasks.

Rule for Citation

(Author’s Surname Year of Publication, Chapter Number)

Example of Citation entry

(Edwards 2010, chap. 2)

Rule for Reference list

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name. Application, Device or File Format.

or

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name. DOI.

or

Author’s Surname, Author’s Given Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name. URL.

Example of Reference list entry

Edwards, Andres R. 2010.Thriving Beyond Sustainability: Pathways to a Resilient Society. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers. Kindle eBook.

or

Bonds, Mark Evan. 2014. Absolute Music: The History of an Idea. New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199343638.001.0001.

or

Lystra, Karen. 2004. Dangerous Intimacy: The Untold Story of Mark Twain’s Final Years. Berkeley: University of California Press. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt8779q6kr/.