Citing and referencing: Interviews and personal communication

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Interviews and personal communication

Published interviews

Published interviews generally follow the patterns of the document types they are published within. References to interviews consulted online can include a DOI or a URL. If allocated, the DOI is the preferred electronic resource identifier. Note that a DOI may have the form of a URL. If so, it is included in full. The Chicago Manual of Style does not require that access dates be included in references to formally published electronic and online sources. However, students may be required to include them for assessment tasks. 

Rule for Citation

(Interviewee's Surname Year of Publication, Page or Pages)

Example of Citation entry

(Bellour 1979, 91)

Rule for Reference list

Interviewee's Surname, Interviewee's Given Name. Year of Interview. “Title of Interview: Subtitle of Interview.” By Interviewer’s Full Name. Title of Publication Volume Number (Issue Number or Season): Page Range of Interview. DOI or  URL.

Example of Reference list entry

Bellour, Raymond. 1979. “Alternation, Segmentation, Hypnosis: Interview with Raymond Bellour.” By Janet Bergstrom. Camera Obscura 3–4 (Summer 1979): 89–94. Accessed June 27, 2018.


Unpublished interviews and personal communication

Unpublished interviews and personal communication are not included in the reference list, though each person cited must be fully identified in the text. The citation includes the full name of the person concerned, followed by a comma, and the abbreviation pers. comm., personal communication, or a description. The date the interview took place is preceded by a comma. Include any other relevant details within the text.

Rule for Citation

(Interviewee's Surname, personal communication abbreviated as pers. comm.)


(Interviewee's Surname, description, date of interview)

Example of Citation entry

(Julie Cantor, pers. comm.)


(Brenda Hasbrouck, text message to author, May 5, 2017)