Citing and referencing: University course materials

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

University course materials


  • Not all lecturers approve the use of unit materials, such as lecture slides, in assignments. Check with your lecturer first to see if these resources are acceptable.
  • The course coordinator is usually the author, unless otherwise noted.
  • Add a description after the title, such as [PowerPoint slides], [Lecture notes].
  • These titles should always be italicised.
  • If you cannot locate a date on the document, use the abbreviation (n.d.) in place of the year.
  • You will need to add the name of the Learning Management System (LMS) after the title. Monash uses Moodle'.
  • Use the log-in address from Moodle for the access link:
  • Online documents are considered 'static' by APA standards and therefore do not require the words 'Retrieved from' before an access link.  This is a major revision for APA 7. 
  • Do not include a full-stop after the URL at the end of the reference.
  • APA allows for links to be either plain text or 'active'. See the official APA Style Blog for more information.


Lecture notes - available on Moodle

  • These are treated like books if they are published, but like personal communication if they are your own notes or unpublished.
  • Lecture notes are considered published if they have been copied and distributed in print or on the web with the instructor's permission.
Format Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month DD). Title of lecture [Lecture notes]. https://xxxxxx

Cioe, J. (2012, March 14). The normal distribution [Lecture notes].


Class notes

Format Note: Cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture as a personal communication and refer to it only in the body of your essay.

Citation in text: In a lecture on August 10, 2012, to a BTW1110 class, Professor Smith said...


Class handouts

Format Author, A. A. (Year). Title of handout [Class handout]. Publisher.

Woodworth, M. (2006). Psychopaths [Class handout]. Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia Okanagan.


Class handouts - available on Moodle

Format Author, A. A. (Year). Title of handout [Class handout]. https://xxxxxx

Woodworth, M. (2006). Psychopaths [Class handout].


Powerpoint presentation - available on Moodle

Format Author, A. A. (Year). Title of powerpoint [PowerPoint slides]. https://xxxxxx

Cioe, J. (2012). Biological foundations of sexuality [PowerPoint slides].


MOOC - Massive Open Online Course

  • With regard to Monash University MOOCs produced through FutureLearn, Monash maintains the copyright.
  • This might differ for other MOOCs and MOOC providers.
  • Often MOOCs will provide a copyright statement at the bottom of each page.
Format Author, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of course [Format]. https://xxxxxx

Monash University (Producer). (2015). The role of water in "cities of the future" [MOOC].