Citing and referencing: Images, graphs, tables, figures & data sets

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Images, graphs, tables, figures & data sets

See Chapter 4 of the AMA Manual of Style, 11th ed. for information about creating tables and figures in your work. The information below is based on the manual's guidelines. The section on footnotes is particularly useful.

When including tables and figures in-text, you can:

  • create them from your own data or research
  • create them using data or research from another source, or
  • include an exact figure, table, image, or graph in your work from another source.

Label your table or figure and give it a meaningful title. Refer to it in your closely preceding text. 

Example: The table below was created with original data, no acknowledgment is required.

Table 1. Gendered Breakdown of Respondents to Surveys 

Respondents Survey A Survey B
Females 15 18
Males 59 21

If your figure or table is not completely your own work, however, you must acknowledge the source(s) you used. Use a footnote to specify where you accessed the information.

Example: The table below was created using data from another source, acknowledgment is required

Table 2. Levels of Activity Based on Geographic Locationa

Geographic Location % Physically Active % Zero Physical Activity
City 28.3% 12.3
Inner Regional 26.8 17.4

aData derived from National Health Survey 2020-2119

Note that the citation for the data above would appear in the reference list as per normal in numerical order.

For figures and tables that you have copied exactly from another source, use a footnote.

Example: The figure below was copied from another source, acknowledgment is required

Figure 1. Funnel plot of pool prevalence of postpartum depression in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2020a

picture of a Funnel plot

aSource: Woldeyohannes et al.31

Important note: If you intend to publish your work, for your thesis or a journal article submission, you will need to get the copyright owner's permission to reproduce their work in yours. See copyright information 
Data sets

See Chapter of the AMA Style Manual for more examples of citing data from a repository.

Example: 60.    Barnieh L, Clement F, Harris A, et al. Data from: Strategies to increase appropriate prescribing. Bridges. Deposited March 11, 2014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090434.t002