|Important note: Please check with your unit coordinator for any specific referencing or formatting requirements. For instance, we are recommending the use of superscript3 for in-text citations as opposed to brackets.(3) Your unit coordinator may have their own preference.|
Insert an in-text citation when your work has been influenced by someone else's work, for example:
When using the Vancouver style, a number is allocated to each citation in the order in which it appears in the text.
The way you cite information can be significant, depending on the emphasis you wish to apply.
Example: in their research, Jones and Smith2 assert...
Example: Pawson et al16 concluded that...
Example: The results, as evidenced by a recent Australian study17 show that...
Example: ...the wording of the title shouldn't be too vague6;
Example:...when evaluating the quality of evidence.12
Include page numbers in in-text citations when you are directly quoting another person's work. Some unit coordinators may want you to include page numbers in your in-text citations when you paraphrase as well. Check your assignment instructions and ask your unit coordinator if you are unsure. For example, when citing information from a book or other long text, including page numbers in your in-text citations can help your reader to locate the information. Brackets (parentheses) are used if you're including page numbers as per the example below. Use p for a single page and pp for multiple pages.
Example:...to highlight the issue Taylor10(p63) discusses Bridge's research...
If you want to cite several sources at once, for example when reporting on multiple studies with similar findings, you can include more than one source in one citation. Note in the example below that pages 3 and 5 are separated by a comma. If the information referred to was across consecutive pages, that is pages 3, 4, and 5 then the citation would include a hyphen9(pp3-5),10 instead.
Example: Russo 14(pp3,5),15 emphasises the importance of evaluating methodologies for meta-analyses.
|Refer to the AMA Manual of Style Chapter 3.6 for more about in-text citations. Chapter 3.7 details more about how to include authors in your text.|