Citing and referencing: Medicine & health sources

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Medicine & health sources

NOTE: Tools used for health and diagnostic purposes contain information that is designed to change over time. You should include the last updated or revised date (if given) of the item as well as the date it was accessed. Chapter 3.15 of the Style Guide is helpful as are the examples below. See also the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Citing Medicine manual, Chapter 22 for more information about online content.

Evidence summaries/Point of care tools/Guidelines (electronic)

Tool Example
DynaMed plus  16.     Diabetes mellitus type 1. DynaMed.  EBSCO Information Services. Updated April 13, 2022. Accessed September 14, 2022.

17.     Egan BM. Patient adherence and the treatment of hypertension. UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer. Updated March 5, 2022. Accessed September 14, 2022.

BMJ best practice 18.     Hueston WJ. Acute bronchitis. BMJ Best Practice. BMJ Publishing Group. Updated May 13, 2022. Accessed September 14, 2022.
JBI EBP database [Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence-Based Practice] 19.     Ndegwa, MD. Gestational diabetes: antenatal care. JBI EBP Database. Ovid; 2021. Accessed October 20, 2022.
Cochrane clinical answers 20.     Bunt C. For people who have had a stroke, does repetitive task training help to improve functional ability? 2018; Cochrane Clinical Answers. Wiley. Accessed October 20, 2022. doi:10.1002/cca.2111
Therapeutic guidelines [formerly eTG complete]

21.    Gastro-oesophageal reflux in adults. In: Therapeutic Guidelines; 2021. Updated August 2022. Accessed September 14, 2022.

Standards and pharmacopoeias

Chapter 14.9.7 of the Style Manual has some examples of references for pharmacopoeias. And in Chapter 3.17 there is an example of reference for ANSI/NISO standard.

22.     AS ISO 15189-2013 Medical laboratories: requirements for quality and competence. 2nd ed. Standards Australia. Published May 14, 2013. Accessed September 16, 2022.

23.    Edetate Disodium. In: USP-NF; 2022. Accessed September 16, 2022. doi: 10.31003/USPNF_M28970_04_01

Drug Information sources

Formularies and entries within them, follow the same format as for books and chapters. There are multiple examples for handbooks in the Style Manual and a section on monographs in Chapter 3.12.3. Package inserts are discussed in Chapter 3.13.6.

Formularies (electronic)

Example: 47.     Escitalopram. In: Australian Medicines Handbook. Australian Medicines Handbook Pty Ltd. Updated July 2022. Accessed October 20, 2022.

Entry from formulary (print)

Example: 50.     Spirulina. In: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary and Handbook: A Guide to Best Practice. 25th ed. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia; 2021: 277.

Drug Monographs (electronic)

Example: 52.     Pregabalin. In: Micromedex. IBM Watson Health; 2022.  Accessed October 26, 2022.

Example: 53.     Roaccutane. In: MIMS Online. MIMS Australia Pty Ltd; 2022. Accessed October 26, 2022.

Example: 54.     Codeine (Systemic). In: AusDI. MedicalDirector; 2022. Accessed October 26, 2022.

Drug Interactions (electronic)

Example: 55.     Acetaminophen, Warfarin. In: Micromedex Drug Interactions. IBM Watson Health; 2022. Accessed October 26, 2022.

Example: 56.     Paracetamol, Warfarin sodium. In: MIMS Online Drug Interactions. MIMS Australia Pty Ltd; 2022. Accessed October 26, 2022.

Complementary and alternative medicines (electronic)

Example: 58.     Fish oil. In: Natural Medicines. Therapeutic Research Center; 2022. Accessed October 26, 2022.,-herbs-supplements/professional.aspx?productid=993