Include the following bulleted elements for journal articles in your reference list.
Example: 2. Evangelopoulos DS, Tobel MV, Cholewa D, et al. Impact of Lodox Statscan on radiation dose and screening time in paediatric trauma patients. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2010;20(6):382-386. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1261941
Example: 3. Murray CJL. Maximizing antiretroviral therapy in developing countries: the dual challenge of efficiency and quality. JAMA. Published online December 1, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.16376
Example: 4. Maloney S, Nicklen P, Rivers G, et al. A cost-effectiveness analysis of blended versus face-to-face delivery of evidence-based medicine to medical students. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17(7):e182. doi:10.2196/jmir.4346
Example: 5. Chapman E, García Diéguez M. Radiotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(3):CD003880. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003880.pub4
Many journal articles published online have a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Include DOIs in your reference list if they exist, as they are more stable than a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). DOIs sometimes take the form of a URL. If so, you don’t need to include the HTTP, etc., start at doi:10.xxx (etc). If there is no DOI, include the URL instead and the date accessed. Do not add a full stop to DOIs or URLs.
With a DOI:
Example: 6. Gusenbauer M, Haddaway NR. What every researcher should know about searching – clarified concepts, search advice, and an agenda to improve finding in academia. Res Synth Methods. 2021;12(2):136-147. doi:10.1002/jrsm.1457
Without a DOI:
Example: 7. Gusenbauer M, Haddaway NR. What every researcher should know about searching – clarified concepts, search advice, and an agenda to improve finding in academia. Res Synth Methods. 2021;12(2):136-147. Accessed June 8, 2022. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jrsm.1457
Increasingly, journals publish articles online before being allocated to a particular issue or volume. Terms you may come across include 'online early', 'online first', or 'advance online publication'. 'Forthcoming' usually means the article has been accepted for publication. The term 'in press' is generally no longer used. Section 3.11.4 explains more about early online journal articles
Occasionally, you may want to cite other versions of articles that you've found, usually via search engines like Google or Google Scholar. Researchers may opt to make their articles openly accessible online via repositories like arXiv, platforms like ResearchGate, or other servers. Pre-prints, post-prints, or author manuscripts are common terms, but always investigate whether a final published version or 'version of record' exists and use it instead. Otherwise, indicate the version you are citing.
Example: 8. Nnama-Okechukwu C, McLaughlin H, Okoye U, et al. Indigenous knowledge and social work education in Nigeria: challenges and need for sustainable development. Int Soc Work. Published online May 25, 2022. doi:10.1177/00208728221098511
Example: 9. Awaya N, Ma L. Tree boosting for learning probability measures. arXiv. Preprint posted online
June 7, 2022. doi:arxiv:2101.11083
|Refer to the AMA Manual of Style Chapter 3.11 for more guidance and examples related to references for journal articles.|