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Vancouver 2022

Getting started

This guide offers advice on using the Vancouver referencing style, which is a numbered referencing style. The Vancouver style used at Monash University is based on the AMA Manual of Style,11th Edition published in 2020 and is provided online by the Library. Major points to note are: 

  • use the DOI for online references if a DOI exists, otherwise use the URL
  • do NOT flag [Internet] in references
  • page numbers are not abbreviated so reference as 123-129
  • there are no restrictions on how many initials an author can have
  • place of publication is not required for books

Our interactive online tutorials can help you understand the basics of citing and referencing, and why citing and referencing is important.

Elements of citing and referencing in Vancouver style

Two of the main reasons why we use referencing styles are to acknowledge our sources and to give readers the information they need to find the sources for themselves. This requires two elements: in-text citations and a reference list. 

1. In-text citations

For a numbered referencing style such as Vancouver, citations within the text usually include only a number. These can be written in superscript1 or in brackets (1). All of the in-text citation examples in this guide use superscript numbers. Each in-text citation has a corresponding entry in the reference list.

2. Reference list

Each reference list entry has a number corresponding with an in-text citation and includes the author’s name and the publication year, the title, and the publication details. More guidance and examples related to Vancouver citations and references are included in the contents of this guide. Please check with your unit coordinator for any specific referencing or formatting requirements.

Sources using Vancouver

We've listed some sources that use the Vancouver referencing style, similar to Monash's Vancouver style, so you can see examples in action:

If you’re using EndNote, the JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) output style can be added to your list of styles. Go to your EndNote > Tools > Output styles > New style (find JAMA) and add to your frequently used styles. The JAMA style is also based on the AMA Manual of Style. We recommend loading abbreviated journal titles to your EndNote desktop application.

Get help

When you need support beyond this guide, you can:

Book in for an online Zoom workshop.

 Book a one-to-one online consultation with one of our librarians

 Email your query for expert librarian support.

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