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Vancouver 2022

In-text citation

Formatting your in-text citations

In Vancouver style, a number is allocated to each citation in the order in which it appears in the text.

  • Use superscript Arabic numerals, that is1,2, etc.
    • In Word, superscript can be formatted using x2 from the ribbon or (Ctrl + Shift + +)
  • If the source is referred to again in different parts of the text, the same number is used
  • If you are citing multiple works by the same author, each citation will have its own reference number, even if it is published in the same year
  • Superscript reference numbers should be inserted inside colons and semi-colons
  • Superscript reference numbers are placed outside full stops, commas, quotation marks, and brackets, that is, (parentheses).


...the wording of the title shouldn't be too vague6;

...when evaluating the quality of evidence.12


Two types of in-text citations

The way you cite information can be significant, depending on the emphasis you wish to apply.

1. Author prominent

If you wish to emphasise the author, then your citation becomes 'author prominent'.


In their research, Jones and Smithassert...

Pawson et al16 concluded that...

  • Two authors are combined with 'and'
  • If there are more than two authors, use "et al" in your in-text citations.
2. Information prominent

If you wish to emphasise the information you have paraphrased or quoted, your citation becomes 'information prominent'


The results, as evidenced by a recent Australian study17 show that...


Quotes and page numbers

Include page numbers in in-text citations when you are directly quoting another person's work.

Brackets (parentheses) are used if you're including page numbers as per the example below. Use p for a single page and pp for multiple pages. If you want to cite several sources at once, for example when reporting on multiple studies with similar findings, you can include more than one source in one citation.

Example highlight the issue Taylor10(p63) discusses Bridge's research...

Russo 14(pp3,5),15 emphasises the importance of evaluating methodologies for meta-analyses.

  • In the example above, pages 3 and 5 are separated by a comma. If the information referred to was across consecutive pages, that is pages 3, 4, and 5 then the citation would include a hyphen9(pp3-5),10  instead.
  • Some unit coordinators may want you to include page numbers in your in-text citations when you paraphrase as well. Check your assignment instructions and ask your unit coordinator if you are unsure. For example, when citing information from a book or other long text, including page numbers in your in-text citations can help your reader to locate the information.

Check with your unit coordinator for any specific referencing or formatting requirements. For instance, we are recommending the use of superscript3 for in-text citations as opposed to brackets (3). Your unit coordinator may have their own preference.

Refer to the AMA Manual of Style Chapter 3.6 for more about in-text citations. Chapter 3.7 details more about how to include authors in your text.