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Citing and referencing: Journals/Periodicals/Newspapers

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

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Journals/Periodicals: Print

One author

Reference list Prentice, C 2010, 'Terms of ambivalence: cultural politics and symbolic exchange', Australian Literary Studies, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 33-54.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Prentice (2010) analyses the ambivalence of indigenous peoples in capitalist nation states.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The political dimensions of cultural exchange are enacted in fiction by Aboriginal and Maori writers (Prentice 2010).
Quoting - Author prominent Prentice (2010, p. 40) asserts a need 'to examine the complicity between representation and commodification'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent Indigenous cultural signification struggles in relation to a 'consumerist hegemony' (Prentice 2010, p. 42).
*pinpoint the quote   

 

Two authors

Reference list Harkness, S & Evans, M 2011, 'The employment effects of recession on couples in the UK: women's and household employment prospects and partner's job loss', Journal of Social Policy, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 675-693.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Harkness and Evans (2011) analyse the effects of male job losses on a partner‟s employment.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent In the UK in 2008, 59% of women with unemployed partners worked (Harkness & Evans 2011, p. 681).
*pinpoint the specific information
*use & in citation 
Quoting - Author prominent Harkness and Evans (2011, p. 690) show that current policies mitigate slightly the 'rising worklessness among couples'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use and in sentence
Quoting - Information prominent The UK suffered polarisation between 'work-rich' and 'work-poor' households (Harkness & Evans 2011, p. 676).
*pinpoint the quote
*use & in citation   

 

Three authors

Reference list Schulhofer, SJ, Tyler, TR & Huq, AZ 2011, 'American policing at the crossroads: unsustainable policies and the procedural justice alternative', The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 335-374.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Schulhofer, Tyler and Huq (2011) argue for a new procedural justice model of policing in the United States.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The role of perceptions of the legitimacy of police practice in shaping willingness to obey the law is analysed (Schulhofer, Tyler & Huq 2011).
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent Schulhofer, Tyler and Huq (2011, p. 337) claim that polarisation rests on 'conspicuous racial disparities in [America's] prison populations'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use and in sentence
*square brackets indicate word added or altered for clarity
Quoting - Information prominent 'Conceptual ambiguity and a failure to study empirical data' are features of debates about policing (Schulhofer, Tyler & Huq 2011, p. 341).
*pinpoint the quote
*use & in citation    

 

Four or more authors

Reference list Ho, W, Lee, W, Chan, C, Ng, Y & Choy, Y 2010, 'Hong Kong's elite structure, legislature and the bleak future of democracy under Chinese sovereignty', Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 466-486.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Data from Ho et al. (2010) demonstrate networks of individuals holding positions in multiple powerful organisations.
*use et al. (note stop only after 'al.' not after 'et')
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Universal suffrage in Hong Kong was moved to 1012, then to 2017, and then to 2020 (Ho et al. 2010, p. 467).
*pinpoint the specific information
*use et al.
Quoting - Author prominent Ho et al. (2010, p. 466) argue that there is a 'systemic barrier against further democratic development'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use et al.
Quoting - Information prominent Democratic reform is prevented by 'substantial linkages [which] exist between the most powerful organisations' (Ho et al. 2010, p. 482).
*pinpoint the quote
*use et al.
*square brackets indicate word added or altered for clarity

 

No author

*title in place of author

Reference list 'TE Cliffe Leslie on the celibacy of the nation' 2011, Population and Development Review, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 185-190.
*article title in place of author

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The anonymous review of Leslie‟s essay ('TE Cliffe Leslie on the celibacy of the nation' 2011) canvasses reasons for the low incidence of marriage in Britain in the mid-1800s.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Almost 40% of women between 20 and 40 years of age in Britain in 1851 were unmarried ('TE Cliffe Leslie on the celibacy of the nation' 2011, p. 185).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent It is wittily asserted ('TE Cliffe Leslie on the celibacy of the nation' 2011, p. 187) that 'the necessity of watching the price of flour for the signal to marry' will dissipate.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent The number of marriages was directly correlated with 'the average earnings of the great mass of the people' ('TE Cliffe Leslie on the celibacy of the nation' 2011, p. 186).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Citing a source within a source

*try to locate and use the cited source

Reference list Tawa, M 2011, 'Entr'acte: interval: a review of Adrian Snodgrass' 'Thinking through the gap' and Linda Marie Walker's 'And so on and', Architectural Theory Review, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 125-136.
*in the Reference list include only the article you actually used (not the source cited in the article you used).

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

For Derrida (1993 cited in Tawa 2011, p. 132), waiting implies being open to the future.
*pinpoint the specific information
*include author and year of publication for both sources
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Cinema is primarily experienced between the visible frames (Godard 1997 cited in Tawa 2011, p. 132).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent Heidegger (2009 cited in Tawa 2011, p. 129) identifies three types of ambiguity, two of which are 'illegitimate'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent Symbolism exceeds logic and has been characterised as the 'colloidal anatomy of the visible' (Carter 2009 cited in Tawa 2011, p. 128).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Newspaper article 

*newspapers are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list Devlin, M 2011, 'Keys found to success by the less privileged', The Australian, 16 November, p. 32.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

While Devlin (2011, p. 32) reports the highlights of a study of first year students from low socio-economic backgrounds, it is not the role of a newspaper to assess such studies.
*pinpoint the specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A recent study by Deacon university attributes four major factors to first year success (Devlin 2011, p. 32).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent Devlin (2011, p. 32) reports on a recently published study which points to a move from 'elite, through mass to universal access' in Australian higher education.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent Students nominated 'perseverance' as a significant factor contributing to success in first year university, according to a news report (Devlin 2011, p. 32).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Newspaper article, no author

*newspapers are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list 'Wage claims must be contained' 2011, The Australian, November 17, p. 15.
*use title in place of author

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

It has been claimed ('Wage claims must be contained' 2011, p. 15) that tax relief rather than pay rises is required.
*pinpoint the specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Social and community workers will gain up to 33% percent pay rise ('Wage claims must be contained' 2011, p. 15).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent A recent editorial ('Wage claims must be contained' 2011, p. 15) asserts higher tax thresholds to be 'a strong incentive' to return to work.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent The initiative has been labelled in the media as intervention 'under the guise' of promoting gender equality ('Wage claims must be contained' 2011, p. 15).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Newspaper article from a news service

*newspapers are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list Associated Press 2011, 'Key tape "could change votes"', The Australian, 17 November, p. 11.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

According to a recent report (Associated Press 2011, p. 11), the conversation was secretly taped.
*pinpoint the specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A secret recording of the conversation may be released to the public (Associated Press 2011, p. 11).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent Associated Press (2011, p. 11) reports that the tape possibly 'contains embarrassing political statements'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent The recording was called a 'covert operation' by the National Party chairman (Associated Press 2011, p. 11).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Magazine article

*magazines are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list Kolbert, E 2011, 'The acid sea', National Geographic, vol. 219, no. 4, pp. 100-121.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Appropriately for a non-academic target audience, Kolbert's (2011) feature article intersperses anecdote with science.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A range of effects of increasing CO2 in oceans is explained for a non scientific target audience (Kolbert 2011).
Quoting - Author prominent Kolbert (2011, p. 112) describes outcomes clearly for a generalist reader; 'natural processes … operate far too slowly to make a difference on a human time scale'.
*pinpoint the quote
*ellipsis of three dots indicates word/s omitted
Quoting - Information prominent Language is hedged to avoid alarm; 'the acidification that has occurred so far is probably irreversible' (Kolbert 2011, p. 108, emphasis added).
*pinpoint the quote
*(emphasis added) in citation indicates you have added italics for emphasis.

 

Magazine article, no author

*magazines are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list 'The 1983 all-America research team' 1983, Institutional Investor, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 73-174.
*use title in place of author

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The questionnaire ('The 1983 all-America research team' 1983, p. 76) was distributed to one thousand organisations.
*pinpoint the specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Among the methodological limitations is disparity in market exposure ('The 1983 all-America research team' 1983, p. 76).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent Despite overall prosperity ('The 1983 all-America research team' 1983, p. 73), 'some businesses faltered'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent 1983 was 'one of the most bullish periods ever' ('The 1983 all-America research team' 1983, p. 73).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Annual report, print

Reference list State of Victoria 2004, Vicroads annual report 2003-2004, Corporate Publications, Kew.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

State of Victoria (2004, p. 31) listed twenty environmental incidents for the year, of which seven were of level 3 severity.
*pinpoint the specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Vicroads undertook nine major development projects in the year 2003-2004 (State of Victoria 2004).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent State of Victoria (2004, p. 61) identifies 'increased recruitment' as a key factor in capacity building.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent Assistance to non-English speaking customers included '4056 interpreter assisted tests' (State of Victoria 2004, p. 50).
*pinpoint the quote

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Journals/Periodicals: Electronic

One author

Reference list Downing, S 2010, 'Social control in a subculture of piracy', Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 77-123, viewed 18 November 2011, http://www.albany.edu/scj/jcjpc/jcjpc_vol17.html
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Downing (2010) recorded data from online forums.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Internet piracy, rather than being chaotic, operates within informal constraints (Downing 2010).
Quoting - Author prominent As Downing (2010, p. 103) points out, 'acquisition of the external device(s) needed to pirate is itself a process that requires one to possess a certain knowledge base'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent Many pirates 'present legitimate arguments for downloading software' (Downing 2010, p. 116).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Two authors

Reference list Head, BW & Redmond, G 2011, 'Making prevention work in human services for children and youth', Australian Review of Public Affairs, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5-22, viewed 5 January 2012, http://www.australianreview.net/journal/v10/n1/head_redmond.pdf
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Head and Redmond (2011) argue that prevention significantly improves outcomes.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A history of prevention approaches reveals a wide range of underlying assumptions (Head & Redmond 2011).
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent Head and Redmond's (2011, p. 7) argument 'implicitly takes … the “clean slate” approach to child development'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use
and in sentence
*use double quotation marks for a quote within a quote
*ellipsis of three dots indicates word/s omitted
Quoting - Information prominent It is argued that 'the value judgements and choices… need to be better articulated and understood' (Head & Redmond 2011, p. 18).
*pinpoint the quote
*ellipsis of three dots indicates word/s omitted

 

Three authors

Reference list Townsend, K, McDonald, P & Esders, L 2008, 'How political, satirical cartoons illustrated Australia's Work Choices debate', Australian Review of Public Affairs, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-26, viewed 5 January 2012, http://www.australianreview.net/journal/v9/n1/townsend.pdf
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Townsend, McDonald and Esders (2008) found that mainstream media cartoons were cynical but not destructive.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Cartoons concerning Work Choices were classified thematically (Townsend, McDonald & Esders 2008).
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent A study by Townsend, McDonald and Esders (2008, p. 22) showed that the cartoons 'were moderate in tone'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use
and in sentence
*ellipsis of three dots indicates word/s omitted
Quoting - Information prominent

As expected, 'published cartoons were only part of the wider political discourse at a tumultuous time' (Townsend, McDonald & Esders 2008, p. 22).
*pinpoint the quote
*use & in citation

 

Four or more authors

Reference list Carson, L, White, S, Hendriks, C & Palmer, J 2002, 'Community consultation in environmental policy making', The Drawing Board: An Australian Review of Public Affairs, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-13, viewed 5 January 2012, http://www.australianreview.net/journal/v3/n1/carson.pdf
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Carson et al. (2002) analyse a consultation process involving citizens.
*use et al. for source with four or more authors (note stop only after ‘al., not after ‘et’)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Community consultation was not common at that time (Carson et al. 2002, p. 2).
*pinpoint the specific information
*use
et al.
Quoting - Author prominent Carson et al. (2002, p. 11) observed that 'participants want to suggest solutions'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use
et al.
Quoting - Information prominent

'Consultation need not be an add-on, a requirement to show the public agrees', but can shape the outcome (Carson et al. 2002, p. 12).
*pinpoint the quote
*use et al.

 

No author

*use article title in quote marks

Reference list 'Freezing fish at sea' 1958, Nature, vol. 181, no. 4612, p. 817. viewed 13 January 2012, http://www.nature.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/nature/journal/v181/n4612/pdf/181817b0.pdf
*use title in place of author
Paraphrasing - Author prominent 'Freezing fish at sea' (1958) reports on a study into quick freezing technology.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The experimental quick freezing process was successful in all conditions ('Freezing fish at sea' 1958, p. 817).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent 'Freezing fish at sea' (1958, p. 817) describes the experiment as 'extensive and impressive'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent

Quick freezing technology was trialled to improve quality in situations in which 'the earlier part of the catch may be some twelve days old when it is landed' ('Freezing fish at sea' 1958, p. 817).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Article from a database

Reference list Kim, D & Johnson, T 2012, 'Political blog readers: predictors of motivations for accessing political blogs', Telematics and Informatics, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 99-109, (online Ebscohost).
*include database name in brackets, no URL required, no viewed date required
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Kim and Johnson (2012) examined motivations for participation in political blogs.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Blogs serve as an interactive forum for interpersonal discussion (Kim & Johnson 2012, p. 106).
*pinpoint the specific information
*use
& in citation
Quoting - Author prominent Kim and Johnson (2012, p. 105) conclude that the blogs exist 'to find out what other people think about important issues or events and to keep up with the main issues of the day'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use and in sentence
Quoting - Information prominent

There appears to be 'a weak relation between demographics and motivations for using blogs, consistent with past studies' (Kim & Johnson 2012, p. 106).
*pinpoint the quote
*use
& in citation

 

Article with doi

Reference list Novick, M 2012, 'Allowable interval sequences and separating convex sets in the plane', Discrete Computational Geometry, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 378-392, doi: 10.1007/s00454-011-9365-5
*copy the full digital object identifier (doi:xxxxxx) from the article
*no URL required, no viewed date required, no database name required
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Novick (2012) uses a recently devised method to address the separation of convex sets in the plane.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A series of proofs from 1979 onward is invoked as partial support for the main argument (Novick 2012).
Quoting - Author prominent Novick (2012, p. 379) refers to a previous proof 'known as allowable sequences of permutation' (emphasis in original).
*pinpoint the quote
*(emphasis in original) indicates no change to original
Quoting - Information prominent

The 'upper bound from Proposition 6.1 increases by no more than n − 3j + 1', according to Novick (2012, p. 392).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Citing a source within a source

*try to locate and use the cited source

Reference list Shirazi, F 2012, 'Information and communication technology and women empowerment in Iran', Telematics and Informatics, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 45-55, (online Science Direct).
*in the Reference list include only the article you actually used, (not the source cited in the article you used).
*if source is from a database, include database name in brackets, no URL required, no viewed date required. See also Appendix B.
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Esfandiari (1997 cited in Shirazi 2012, pp. 47-48) reports that Iranian women's movements have a long history.
*pinpoint the citation in your source
*include year of publication for both sources
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Where freedom of expression is constrained, subversive modes of dissent arise (Haider 2009 cited in Shirazi 2012, p. 46).
*pinpoint the citation in your source
Quoting - Author prominent The United Nations (2010 cited in Shirazi 2012, p. 49) estimates that '7% of tenured university faculty position (sic) are held by women'.
*pinpoint the quote
*use (sic) immediately after an error in source
Quoting - Information prominent

'Every print magazine for women we had was closed, so we created a new world for ourselves in cyberspace' (Soguel 2010 cited in Shirazi 2012, p. 49).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Newspaper article from a database

*newspapers are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research
*for multiple authors see examples above

Reference list Devlin, M 2011, 'Keys found to success by the less privileged', The Australian, 16 November, p. 32, (online Factiva).
*include database name in brackets, no URL required
*include day of publication and page number
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Devlin (2011, p. 32) reports on a recent study of first year students from low socio-economic backgrounds.
*pinpoint the specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A recent study by Deakin university attributes four major factors to first year success (Devlin 2011, p. 32).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent Devlin (2011, p. 32) points to a move from 'elite, through mass to universal access' in Australian higher education.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent

Students nominated 'perseverance' as a significant factor contributing to success in first year university (Devlin 2011, p. 32).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Newspaper article

*newspapers are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research
*for multiple authors see examples above

Reference list Flitton, D 2012, 'Economic woes hit US defence ambitions', The Canberra Times, 4 January, viewed 4 January 2012, http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/world/world/general/economic-woes-hit-us-defence-ambitions/2409318.aspx
*include both day of publication and viewed
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Flitton (2012) reports a substantial cut in funding for the US military.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent New forms of warfare have influenced US government funding of its defence forces (Flitton 2012, para. 11).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent Flitton (2012, para. 1) claims that 'Australia is about to confront the biting reality of US military decline'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent

Australian foreign policy must respond to the 'US's formal strategy to fight two large adversaries at once' (Flitton 2012, para. 3).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Newspaper article, no author

*use title of article in quote marks
*newspapers are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research
Reference list 'Stabbed man found lying in street' 2012, The Townsville Bulletin, 5 January, viewed 5 January 2012, http://www.townsvillebulletin.com.au/article/2012/01/05/295451_news.html
*use title in place of author
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Recent articles such as 'Stabbed man found lying in street' (2012) demonstrate a continuing focus on sensationalist reporting
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Robbery and mugging feature in local newspapers, as in a recent news story ('Stabbed man found lying in street' 2012).
Quoting - Author prominent 'Stabbed man found lying in street' (2012, para. 3) reports that 'the victim refused to hand over his property'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent

Use of statements from hospital staff is common; for example, a man is reported as in 'a critical condition' ('Stabbed man found lying in street' 2012, para. 1) after being mugged.
*pinpoint the quote

 

Article in an online newsletter

*if there is no author use title of article
*newspapers are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research
Reference list Stellman, J 2011, 'Fighting fire with fire: recent burning programs in the APY lands', Caring for Country, newsletter, no. 3, viewed 4 January 2012, http://www.awnrm.sa.gov.au/Portals/3/AW%20News%20Edition3.pdf
Paraphrasing - Author prominent Stellman (2011) is an example of informing the general public of recent programs.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Explaining procedures to a general audience is one common purpose of newsletters (Stellman 2011).
Quoting - Author prominent Stellman (2011, p. 2), as is typical for a general audience, asserts, but does not provide evidence that local populations 'have been burning country since time immemorial as it was critical to their existence'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent Explanations are basic; for example, 'the proliferation of Buffel Grass in the arid zone is altering the fire regime' (Stellman 2011, p. 2).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Annual Report

Reference list World Bank 2011, World Bank annual report 2011, viewed 11 January 2012, http://issuu.com/world.bank.publications/docs/9780821388280/5
Paraphrasing - Author prominent World Bank (2011) provides evidence that the global financial crisis did not affect developing countries as greatly as developed countries.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A wide range of environmental and social predictors are assessed (World Bank 2011).
Quoting - Author prominent Among its successes, World Bank (2011, p. 33) claims that in Bangladesh, '20 million people benefitted from microfinance projects during the last 20 years'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent

The objective 'to lift and keep people out of poverty' is the mission of the World Bank (2011, p. 26).
*pinpoint the quote

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