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Other sources

One author


(Author's surname Year)

Author's surname (Year)


This was seen in an Australian study (Couch 2017)

Couch (2017) suggests that . . .


  • List the authors names in the same order as they appear in the article.
  • Go to Getting started > In-text citation to view other examples such as multiple authors.

Use tables for exact values and information that is too detailed for the text. Use a table only if there isn't a simpler way to present your content such as a list or a diagram.

Tables should include a caption title row and column headings, information (exact values)



Date Event Venue
12 Feb Waltz with Strauss Main Hall

In-text table section

Use Table 1, Table 2 etc to caption tables and refer to them in the text.

See the Style Manual section on tables.

Reference list


Author A or Name of Agency (Year) Title of data set [data set], Name of Website, accessed DD Month YYYY. URL


National Native Title Tribunal (2014) Native Title determination outcomes [data set], accessed 4 January 2020.


  • If no date, use n.d.
  • If name of website is the same as author, do not include the name of the website.

In-text citation


A Author, personal communication, Day Month Year.

A Author, Type of Confidential Unpublished Material, Day Month Year.


M Smith (personal communication, 8 February 2020) wrote . . .

The radiologist's findings were further confirmed (P Alan, radiology report, 6 March 2021) . . .


  • Don’t include an entry in the reference list.
  • Personal communication may include materials such as emails from unarchived sources, private memos or unrecorded interview conversations.
  • Confidential material may include medical charts, patient health records and other internal reports containing private information.
  • Permission from the source is necessary before paraphrasing or citing from a confidential document.