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Harvard

Reference list

Your reference list in Harvard style needs to include all the works you have cited in your assignment. It is placed at the end of your essay on a new page and has a specific format you need to follow.

This is an overview of the rules given in the Style Manual for creating a reference list.

Setting up your list

Format

Rule

Page

Start your reference list on a new page, after the body of the work and any appendices

Order of list

Alphabetical by first author surname or the organisation's name

Author names

Preserve order of names in the publication

URLs

Include the URL at the end of the reference rather than hyperlinking the title, as the Style Manual suggests, so that your readers/markers can easily locate your references if necessary

PDFs

If you’re citing a PDF, link to the page where the PDF is hosted instead of directly to the PDF

Titles

Capitalise the first word of the title of an article, chapter or book, as well as any proper nouns (e.g. person, place or entity)

Titles of parts of a publication (e.g. journal articles, newspaper articles, or chapters in an edited book) should be placed in single quotation marks

Titles of complete publications (e.g. journals, newspapers, books, reports) should be presented in italics

Punctuation

Use commas to separate elements after the title

Use a full stop at the end of the reference, except when the reference ends with a DOI or URL

Use an en dash and no spaces between page numbers (e.g. 72–74)

Uses parentheses around the year of publication


Formatting rules and examples

Reference list
Format

Author A

Example

Alexander JC (2015) ‘Measuring, counting, interpreting: our debate on methods continues’, American Journal of Cultural Sociology, 3(3):309–310, doi:10.1057/ajcs.2015.13

Reference list
Format

Author A and Author B


Author A, Author B and Author C

Example

Poulin J and Matis S (2019) Social work practice: a competency-based approach, Springer. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/monash/reader.action?docID=5968733


Nankervis AR, Baird M, Coffey J and Shields J (2017) Human resource management: strategy and practice, 9th edn, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne.

Reference list
Format

Abbreviation of organisation (full name of organisation)

Example

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2021) Australia in brief, DFAT, accessed 21 July 2023. https://www.dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/australia-in-brief

Tips
  • The Style Manual states to use the abbreviation for the organisation's name in all in-text citations.

Make sure that your in-text citation and reference list entry match. If you have used the name of a blog, website, newspaper, or magazine in your in-text citation in place of the author, use the same name in your reference list. If you have used the title of the work in place of the author in your in-text citation, use the title in place of the author in your reference list.

Reference list
Format

Author A (Yeara)


Author A (Yearb)

Example

Smith A (2007a) 'Emerging in between: The multi-level governance of renewable energy in the English regions', Energy Policy, 35(12):6266–6280, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2007.07.023


Smith A (2007b) 'Translating sustainabilities between green niches and socio-technical regimes', Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 19(4):427–450, doi:10.1080/09537320701403334

Tips
  • If there are multiple sources by the same author, arrange them in chronological order by publication year.
  • For more than one entry by the same author published in the same year, add a lower-case letter to the end of the year in both the citation and the reference list entry
Reference list
Format

Author A


Author B

Example

Miller A (2018) It’s a Matter of Fact : Teaching Students Research Skills in Today’s Information-Packed World, Taylor and Francis, doi:10.4324/9780203731680


Miller V (2021) Child sexual abuse inquiries and the Catholic Church: reassessing the evidence, Firenze University Press, http://digital.casalini.it/9788855182799

Tips
  • The order of appearance is determined by the author's initial.

If the main creator of the source is an editor, reference the source under their name and include the abbreviation ed. (or eds. for more than one).

For translated works, complete the reference, and order the reference list based on the name of the original author of the work, not the translator.

Reference with a DOI
Example

Tharoor S (1990) ‘The universality of human rights and their relevance to developing countries’, Nordic Journal of International Law 59(1):139—152, doi:10.1163/157181090X00288

Reference with a database
Example

Tharoor S (1990) ‘The universality of human rights and their relevance to developing countries’, Nordic Journal of International Law 59(1):139—152. (HeinOnline).

Reference with a URL
Example

Tharoor S (1990) ‘The universality of human rights and their relevance to developing countries’, Nordic Journal of International Law 59(1):139—152, accessed 17 December 2020. https://brill.com/view/journals/nord/59/1/article-p139_15.xml

Tips
  • Many sources published online, including journal articles, government and industry publications, ebooks, and reports, have a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Include DOIs in your reference list if they exist as they are more stable than URLs.
  • DOIs sometimes have the form of a URL. If so, you don’t need to include the HTTP, etc., start at doi:10.xxx (etc).
  • If there is no DOI, include the database or the URL instead.

References

Alexander JC (2015) ‘Measuring, counting, interpreting: our debate on methods continues’, American Journal of Cultural Sociology, 3(3):309–310, doi:10.1057/ajcs.2015.13

Perkins Gilman C (2004) Social ethics: sociology and the future of society (Hill MR and Deegan MJ eds) Praeger, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/monash/detail.action?docID=494814

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2021) Australia in brief, DFAT, accessed 21 July 2023. https://www.dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/australia-in-brief

Halloran JT (2018) Population dynamics in the child welfare system, University of Chicago, accessed 1 February 2021, Proquest Dissertations Publishing.

Nankervis AR, Baird M, Coffey J and Shields J (2017) Human resource management: strategy and practice, 9th edn, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne.

Tsetsura K and Valentini C (2016) 'The “holy” triad in media ethics: a conceptual model for understanding global media ethics', Public Relations Review, 42(4):573–581, doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2016.03.013