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Harvard

Audiovisual

One author

Format

(Author's surname, Year)


Author's surname (Year)

Example

This was seen in an Australian study (Couch, 2017)


Couch (2017) suggests that . . .

Two authors

Format

(Author 1's surname and Author 2's surname Year)


Author 1's surname and Author 2's (Year)

Example

(Hooper and Arnall 2019)


Hooper and Arnall (2019) suggest . . .

Tips

  • List the authors names in the same order as they appear in the article.
  • 'Author' can be a director, producer, creator, etc. depending on the work.
  • Go to Getting started > In-text citation to view other examples.

Images (including photographs, charts, graphs and diagrams) are cited by using captions to label the image and provide information about its source.

Example figure and caption

image of a pyramid of evidence

Figure 1: The pyramid of evidence. Source: Ho PM, Peterson PN and Masoudi FA (2008)

In-text captions

Format

For a figure created yourself, e.g. a graph of your own data, include a brief description.

Figure number: Brief explanation.


For a figure created using published data/information from another source.

Figure number: Brief explanation of the graph or table, data obtained from Author A or Name of Agency (Year) Title of data set [data set], Name of Website, accessed Day Month Year. URL


For a figure reproduced from a published source.

Figure number: Description of figure. From Author A or Organisation (Year)

Example

For a figure created yourself, e.g. a graph of your own data, include a brief description.

Figure 1: Changes in workplace productivity due to COVID-19.


For a figure created using published data/information from another source.

Figure 1: AUD/USD exchange rates from 1970 to 2000. Data obtained from RBA (Reserve Bank of Australia) (n.d.) Exchange rates: monthly: July 1969 to December 2009 [data set], accessed 4 December 2019. https://www.rba.gov.au/statistics/historical-data.html


Note: If using data from a PDF or spreadsheet, avoid linking directly to the document. Instead link to the webpage that hosts the document.


For a figure reproduced from a published source.

Figure 1: The pyramid of evidence. Source: Ho PM, Peterson PN and Masoudi FA (2008)


Note: Include the full reference for the publication in the reference list.

Tips

Reference list

Format

Director D (director) OR Producer P (producer) (Year) Title of film: subtitle of film [type of film], Name of Studio or Publisher, accessed Day Month Year. URL


Director D (director) OR Producer P (producer) (Year) Title of film: subtitle of film [type of film], Name of Studio or Publisher

Example

Loach J (director) (2010) Oranges and Sunshine [television movie], Nine, accessed 23 February 2021. https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/edutv.714039


Johnson R (director) (2019) Knives Out [motion picture], Netflix.

Tips

  • For films viewed online, include an accessed date and a URL or name of streaming service.

Reference list

Format

Director D (director) OR Producer P (producer) (Year) 'Title of episode: subtitle of episode' [television program], Name of series (season number, episode number), Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production.


Director D (director) or Producer P (producer) (Year) Name of series (season number, episode number) [television program], Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production, Streaming service.

Example

Pellizzeri R (director) (1994) 'Luck of the draw' [television program], Blue heelers (season 1, episode 44), Seven Network, Melbourne.


Element Pictures (2020) Normal people (episode 1) [television series], BBC Three, Ireland, Stan.

Tips

  • When including an episode title, [television program] follows the episode title.
  • When there are no episode titles, [television name] follows the series title.
  • If you viewed the tv program on a streaming service (e.g. Netflix, Kanopy), include the name of the streaming service at the end of the reference.

Reference list

Format

Creator C or Owner of Video (Day Month Year) 'Title of video: subtitle of video' [video], Name of Channel or Owning Organisation, accessed Day Month Year. URL

Example

If the author can be identified

Gorman A (21 January 2021) 'Using your voice is a political choice' [video], TED, accessed 29 January 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaZBgqfEa1E


If the channel is the author

libncsu (1 May 2014) 'Peer review in 3 minutes' [video], libncsu, accessed 3 June 2022. https//www.youtube.com/watch?v=rOCQZ7QnoN0

Reference list

Format

Presenter P (presenter) (Day Month Year) 'Title of episode: subtitle of episode' [radio program], Name of program, Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production

Example

McNamara I (presenter) (7 February 2021) Australia all over [radio program], ABC Radio, Sydney.

Reference list

Format

Host H (host) and Producer P (producer) (Day Month Year) ‘Title of podcast: subtitle of podcast’ [podcast], Name of podcast, Name of Podcast Network, accessed Day Month Year. URL

Example

Hooper C (host) and Arnall K (producer) (3 November 2019) 'Goodbye secret garage shame' [podcast], The pineapple project, ABC, accessed 4 February 2020. https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/the-pineapple-project/goodbye-secret-garage-shame/11493174

Reference list - short works

Format

Composer C (Year) 'Title of song: subtitle of song' [Medium], Title of compilation or album, Name of Publisher.

Example

Tones and I (2019) 'Dance monkey' [Song], The kids are coming, Sony Music Australia.

Reference list - long works

Format

Composer C (Year) Title of long work or compilation [Medium], Name of Publisher.

Example

Bach JS (2010) The Brandenburg concertos: concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields], Decca.