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Chicago 17th (B) Author-Date

In-text citation


(Author Surname Year, Pages)


Author Surname (Year, Pages)


... a point of contention (McKale 2012, 32).


McKale (2012, 32) demonstrated that ...


  • In-text citations present authors’ surnames and the year of publication in parentheses (i.e. brackets).
  • Position in-text citations before punctuation.
  • There is no punctuation between the author’s name and the year of publication.
  • For quotations and references to specific passages include page numbers after a comma. Citations to a resource as a whole do not require page numbers.
  • If you cannot find a date for the resource, you can use n.d. instead (for 'no date').
  • If you cannot find an author for the resource, you can usually refer to the title instead. You can also cite an organisation as an author, and these may be cited under their acronym (in capitals with no punctuation. See Chapter 10 of the manual for further guidance).



Two authors

(Suhrke and Adelman 1999, 43–45)

Three authors

(Jones, Wright, and Beacon 2015, 17)

Four or more authors

(Laumann et al. 1994, 4)


  • Multiple authors are listed in the same order as they appear on the resource, which may not necessarily be alphabetical order.
  • For four or more authors, list only the first author and then 'et al.'

Different authors

(Armstrong and Malacinski 1989; Beigl 1989; Pickett and White 1985)

Same author, multiple works

(Whittaker 1967, 1975; Wiens 1989a, 1989b)

Same author, multiple works, with page numbers

(Wong 1999, 328; 2000, 475; GarcĂ­a 1998a, 67; 1998b, 87)


  • Multiple references to different authors in one in-text citation are separated by semicolons.
  • Differentiate between works by the same author published in the same year by adding a, b, c, and etcetera.
  • Additional works by the same author(s) are cited by date only, separated by commas except where page numbers are required.