Citing and referencing: Video and audio

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers


Use sentence case for film titles. Write the title as it appears in the film information. Include the year of production in the in-text citation and in the reference list. Include the place of production if it is known (e.g. Australia, Canada, UK). Use the director's name if it is included, otherwise, use the name of the producer. Include the words [motion picture] in square brackets after the title.

If you watch a film online, include an accessed date and a URL or name of streaming service.

Rule: Director D (director) or Producer P (producer) (Year) Title of film: subtitle of film [motion picture], Name of Studio or Publisher, Place of Production.

Example: Loach J (director) (2010) Oranges and Sunshine [television movie], Nine, accessed 23 February 2021.

Example: Johnson R (director) (2019) Knives Out [motion picture], Netflix.


Episodes of a TV series

Use quotation marks for episodes of a tv program, and use sentence case for the title. Include the year of production in parentheses in both the in-text citations and the reference list. Use the name of the director if known, otherwise use the name of the producer. Use the words [television program] after the title in square brackets. If the episode has a name, use it, otherwise use the name of the program and the episode and season number.

Rule: Director D (director) or Producer P (producer) (Year) ‘Title of episode: subtitle of episode’ [television program], Name of series (season number, episode number), Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production.

Example: Pellizzeri R (director) (1994) ‘Luck of the draw’ [television program], Blue heelers (season 1, episode 44), Seven Network, Melbourne.

Note: [television program] follows the episode title.

Example: ABC Television (2019) Gardening Australia (season 30, episode 35) [television program], ABC Television, Sydney.

Note: [television program] follows the series title as there is no episode title.

If you viewed the tv program on a streaming service (e.g. Netflix, Kanopy), include the name of the streaming service at the end of the reference.

Example: Element Pictures (2020) Normal people (episode 1) [television series], BBC Three, Ireland, Stan.

Example: Hunt B (producer) (2021) ‘Goodbye Earl’ [television program], Ted Lasso, (season 2, episode 1), Universal Television, London, Apple TV+.    


YouTube/online videos 

Use the name of the author when possible. Sometimes the author is a channel rather than an individual, if so, include information about the presenter in your text (near the in-text citation) if needed.  Use sentence case for the title. Include the words [online video] in square brackets after the title, and include the accessed date and the URL. Use the full date details in the reference list, and use the year in the in-text citation.

Rule: Creator C or Owner of Video (Day Month Year) 'Title of video: subtitle of video[video], Name of Channel or Owning Organisation, accessed date. URL

Example if the author can be identified:

Gorman A (21 January 2021) 'Using your voice is a political choice' [video], TED, accessed 29 January 2021.

Example if the channel is the author:

libncsu (1 May 2014) 'Peer review in 3 minutes' [video], libncsu, accessed 3 June 2022.


Radio programs

Rule: Presenter P (presenter) (Day Month Year) ‘Title of episode: subtitle of episode’ [radio program], Name of program, Name of Station or Studio, Place of Production

Example: McNamara I (presenter) (7 February 2021) Australia all over [radio program], ABC Radio, Sydney.



If both the host and presenter are known, and they are different people, include both names.  Otherwise, just include the host.

Rule: Host H (host) and Producer P (producer) (Day Month Year) ‘Title of podcast: subtitle of podcast’ [podcast], Name of podcast, Name of Podcast Network, accessed Day Month Year. URL

Example: Hooper C (host) and Arnall K (producer) (3 November 2019) 'Goodbye secret garage shame' [podcast], The pineapple project, ABC, accessed 4 February 2020.



Write the name of the song, the author, and the year of publication in parentheses when you cite lyrics in a text. If you mention the name of the song in the text, place only the author and the year in parentheses. If you mention the author in-text, put the date in parentheses straight after the author’s name. Use single quotation marks and sentence case for the name of the song. Include the medium (e.g. song, album) in square brackets after the title.

Rule: Composer C (Year) 'Title of song: subtitle of song' [Medium], Title of compilation or album, Name of Publisher.

Example: Tones and I (2019) 'Dance monkey' [Song], The kids are coming, Sony Music Australia.

Example: King C, Poole K and Goffin G (1987) 'The Loco-motion' [Song], Kylie, Stock Aitken Waterman.


Rule: Composer C (Year) Title of long work or compilation [Medium], Name of Publisher.

Example: Bach JS (2010) The Brandenburg concertos: concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields], Decca.