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MLA 9th

Works Cited

The list of sources cited at the end of your assignment is called Works Cited. For more detailed information go to the Library's print copies of the MLA Handbook for chapter 5, "The List of Works Cited", and "Appendix 2: Works-Cited-List by Publication Format."

Examples of Works Cited lists online can be found on the last page of Sample Essays and there are further examples of Citations by Format on the MLA Style Center website.

Formatting rules

The list of Works Cited begins on a new page at the end of your assignment. Each source cited in your assignment should appear in the Works Cited list. 

Format Rule

Title of page

Centre the heading, Works Cited, at the top of page.

Line spacing

Double-space the entire list including a double space between the Works Cited heading and the first entry.


Use hanging indents set at 1.27cm when the entry occupies more than one line.

Watch this video to learn how to create a hanging indent when you are compiling your Works Cited list in MLA format.

Order of list

Alphabetical by first author surname, or title when there is no author. Ignore the leading article (A, The, etc.) when inserting it into the alphabetical list.

Author names


The author of a work can be a writer, artist, or any type of creator, including music groups, such as the Beatles, and organisations. Authors' names should be listed with full names, as presented on the title page, or cover of the resource. 

Multiple authors

The name of the first author is inverted to list their last name first. If there are additional authors, their names are not inverted (e.g. Smith, Adam, and Laura Childs).
For each entry preserve the order of names in your source, from the title page.

Multiple sources by same author Give the author's name in the first entry only. Thereafter, use three hyphens instead of the name, for example, ---.
See the 'Works Cited' list below.
Alphabetise the sources by their titles See 5.126-129 of the. MLA Handbook
Multiple publishers

When the title page lists two or more publishers that seem equally responsible for the work, cite each of them, separating the names with a forward slash (e.g. Cambridge UP / Routledge).


DOI is preferred. Precede the DOI with https//, for example, 
URL: If your source has a stable or permanent link, often called a permalink, copy this stable URL directly from the source and not the browser. When there no DOI or permalink use the URL that you see in the browser (omitting http:// or https://).  

Capitalisation Capitalise the first word of the title, subtitle, and all other significant words. See 2.90-2.98 of the MLA Handbook for more information on capitalising titles including languages other than English.
Italics Titles of books, journals, websites and apps are italicised. For a journal article from an online database (e.g. via the Library website), also italicise the name of the database.


Use quotation marks for titles of journal articles, chapters of books as well as television episodes and news stories and segments. 

Use a hyphen and no spaces between page numbers (e.g. 72–74). If a page range starts with a number over 100, give only the last two digits of the second numeral, e.g. 145-52 not 145-152, 2330-38 not 2330-2338. See 2.139 of the MLA Handbook for more information on number ranges. 

End every entry with a full stop, including after DOIs, permalinks and URLs. 


Sample Works Cited list

Works Cited

Birch, Tony. Dark as Last Night. U of Queensland P, 2015.

---. Ghost River. U of Queensland P, 2021. Proquest,

---. "The Sea of Tranquillity." Shadowboxing. Scribe Publications, 2006, pp. 105-122.

Dyer, Jo. "Living Songs: Music, Law and Culture in Aboriginal Australia." Resonate Magazine. Australian Music Centre, 2009,

“Ecuador to rule on Assange asylum bid.” Lateline, narrated by Emma Alberici, ABC 1 Melbourne, 21 Jun. 2012. TVNews,

"For My Tittas." YouTube, uploaded by Barkaa, 6 Mar. 2020,

Foster, Shannon. "White Bread Dreaming." Growing Up Aboriginal in Australia, edited by Anita Heiss, Black Inc., 2018, pp.93-98. ProQuest,

Jeffers, Alison. Culture, Democracy and the Right to Make Art: The British Community Arts Movement. Bloomsbury, 2018. Bloomsbury Drama Online,   

---. Refugees, Theatre and Crisis: Performing Global Identities. Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

---. Review of Performing Exile, Performing Self: Drama, Theatre, Film, by Yana Meerzon. Theatre Research International, vol. 38, no. 1, 2013, pp. 71-72.

Knopf, Kerstin. “Kangaroos, Petrol, Joints and Sacred Rocks: Australian Cinema Decolonized.” Studies in Australasian Cinema, vol. 7, no. 2-3, 2013, pp. 189-200. Taylor and Francis,

Macquarie Dictionary, Macmillan Publishers Australia, 2020, Macquarie Dictionary Online, www-macquariedictionary-com-au.ap1.proxy.openathens.nett.

Page, Stephen (interviewee). "Bangarra's Bold Leader." Interview conducted by Sarah Kanowsky.  Conversations, Aug. 2019,

Simanowski, Roberto, et al., editors. Reading Moving Letters: Digital Literature in Research and Teaching: A Handbook. Transcript Verlag, 2010. De Gruyter,