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APA 7th

In-text citation

The APA 7th style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people’s work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year.

Two types of in-text citations

1. Author prominent format

Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

Example

Jones (2018) concluded that the treatment was effective in 74% of cases.

Author prominent citations are also referred to as parenthetical citations.

2. Information prominent format

Use this format if you want to emphasise the information. It cites the author’s name, typically at the end of a sentence.

Example

...as evidenced by a recent Australian study of the treatment's effectiveness (Jones, 2018).

Information prominent citations are also referred to as narrative citations.

The following examples show how to form in-text citations according to number of authors and other considerations.

In-text citation

Format

Surname, Year

Example

Hawkins (2020) reported that the results of the study were inconclusive.

 

OR

 

. . . the results of the study were inconclusive (Hawkins, 2020).

In-text citation

Format

Both surnames in the order listed on the publication and the year.


For author prominent citations, use “and” between the author names.


For information prominent citations, & between the author names.

Example

Bovey and Hede (2013) argue that . . .

 

OR

 

. . . is a significant factor (Bovey & Hede, 2013).

In-text citation

Format

Cite the first author followed by et al. and year

Example

Robbins et al. (2017) note that leadership empathy and good communication are key to negotiating successful organisational change.

 

OR

 

They may be required to work harder now there are … perform the same tasks (Robbins et al., 2017).

In-text citation

Format

When two or more authors have the same surname, add their initials to distinguish between them

Example

P. R. Smith (1945) adopted a unique approach . . . . . .later in the text. . . This idea was first advanced by S. Smith (1935).

 

OR

 

Research conducted by W.O. Brown and Jones (1985) was influenced by the work of S.A. Brown and Smith (1961).


The corresponding information prominent citations would be:

 

(P.R. Smith, 1945)

 

(S. Smith, 1935)

 

(W.O. Brown & Jones, 1985)

 

(S.A. Brown & Smith, 1961)

In-text citation

Format

Distinguish identical multiple-author citations with the same year by adding an additional surname, followed by a comma and et al.

Example

Instead of just Brown et al. (1998), add additional author surnames to distinguish between separate works that Brown co-authored that year:


Brown, Shimamura, et al. (1998)

Brown, Taylor, et al. (1998).


The corresponding information prominent citations would be (Brown, Shimamura, et al., 1998), and (Brown, Taylor, et al., 1998).

Tips

In-text citation

Format

Author surname, then years separated by a commas, in chronological order.

Example

Reimer (2017, 2018, 2019) considered this phenomenon across various studies . . .

 

OR

 

. . . this phenomenon was considered across various studies (Reimer, 2017, 2018, 2019).

In-text citation

Format

Assign a suffix of a, b, c, d, etc. after the year, according to alphabetical listing by title in the reference list.

Example

Stairs (1992b) examined . . . . . .later in the text . . . According to Stairs (1992a) . . .

 

OR

 

. . . was recently considered (Stairs, 1992b) . . . . . .later in the text . . . . . . the results were inconclusive (Stairs, 1992a).

Tips

  • For multiple references by the same author with no date, after n.d. add a hyphen and then the suffix e.g. (Dreshcke n.d.-b)

In-text citation

You may want to cite works from various authors to more strongly support a particular point you are making.

Format

List each work alphabetically by surname in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons.

Example

. . . as proposed by various researchers (Adams et al., 2020; Green, 2019; Hall & Clark, 2021).

 

OR

 

Green (2019), Adams et al. (2020), and Hall and Clark (2021) analysed . . .

Tips

  • In the author prominent citation there is no requirement to order the citations alphabetically
  • For further guidance see the APA Style website - Citing multiple works…

In-text citation

Format

Use 'Anonymous' as the surname.

Example

Anonymous (2019)

 

OR

 

(Anonymous, 2019)

In-text citation

Format

Give the first few words of the title. If the title is from an article or a chapter, use double quotation marks. If the title is from a periodical, book brochure, or report, then use italics.

Example

. . . the worst election loss in the party's history ("This is the end," 1968).

In-text citation

Format

If the organisation has a recognisable abbreviation

 

First listing: Organisation name [Abbreviation], Year
Subsequent: Abbreviation, Year

 

Where the organisation abbreviation is not widely known

 

Use the name in full every time

Example

Census data gives valuable insights into... (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2021).

 

THEN

 

Australia's next census will be held on 10th August 2021 (ABS, 2021).

In-text citation

Occasionally it may be necessary to include in your work a quotation from an author.

Format

Always include a page number when you have to cite directly from a source.


If no page numbers are available (e.g. in a website), include a paragraph number.


Use accepted abbreviations like p. for page and para. for paragraph

Example

Gittins (2006) suggests that "the key to understanding microeconomics is to realise that its overwhelming focus is on the role of price" (p. 18).


Weston (1988) stated "the darkest days were still ahead" (p. 45).

 

OR

 

A patient is in pain when they tell you and "it is important to believe the patient so as to build a trusting relationship" (Phipps et al., 1983, p.45).

In-text citation

Format

Private letters, e-mail and conversations require only an in-text citation, which includes the date of the communication (Month DD, YYYY).


Personal communications are not included in reference lists, as they are not accessible to others.

Example

R. Smith (personal communication, January 28, 2020) . . .

 

OR

 

. . . (R. Smith, personal communication, January 28, 2020)

In-text citation

Format

The original author is cited together with the secondary author.


Only do this when the original is unavailable and only include what you have actually read.

Example

Farrow (1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988) . . .

 

OR

 

Ward and Decan (1988) cited Farrow (1968) as finding . . .

 

OR

 

. . . (Farrow, 1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988).