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APA 7th

Other sources

For sources not listed here, try searching the APA style and grammar guidelines blog.  Example: foreign languages.

Data sets


Reference list
Format

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of data set (Version 1.1) [Data set]. Publisher Name. https://doi.org/xxxxx OR https://xxxxx


OR


Name of Group. (Year). Title of data set. [Data set]. Publisher Name. Retrieved Month DD, YYYY, from https://xxxxx

Example

Aston, L., Currie, G., Delbosc, A., Fournier, N., Kamruzzerman, M., & Teller, D. (2020). Melbourne built environment and transit use empirical dataset (Version 2) [Data set]. Monash University. https://doi.org/10.26180/5d9994f4704ea


Department of Planning and Community Development (Vic). (2015). Projected population by age and sex: Vic RVic MSD 2006–2056 [Data set]. https://bit.ly/2TWzpGm

Unpublished Raw Data


Reference list
Format

Name of Group. (YYYY–YYYY). Title of data set [Unpublished raw data]. Source of Unpublished Data. Retrieved Month DD, YYYY, from https://xxxxx

Example

Kindness Institute. (2019–2020). The importance of kindness during a pandemic: A mixed method study of the effectiveness of local support initiatives in an Australian rural community [Unpublished raw data]. University of the Outback.

Tips

  • This material includes raw (published) data that is used for data analysis or measurement.
  • The date for unpublished data is the year(s) of collection.
  • Include retrieval date only if the data set is designed to change over time.
  • You may shorten a long URL. Use a site such as Bitly URL Shortener
  • For further guidance, see the APA style guide Data Set References.

Entire reference work


Reference list
Format

Author/Editor


Author, A. A. or Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Copyright year). Title of work (xx ed.). Publisher.


Author, A. A. or Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Copyright year). Title of work (xx ed.). Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxx OR https://xxxxx


No author or editor


Title of work. (Copyright year). (xx ed.). Publisher.

Example

Author/Editor


Martin, E. A. (Ed.). (2007). Concise colour medical dictionary (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.


Law, J., & Martin, E. (Eds.). (2020). Concise medical dictionary (10th ed.). Oxford Reference. https://doi.org/10.1093/acref/9780198836612.001.0001


No author/Editor


Merriam-Webster's medical desk dictionary. (2005). (Rev. ed.). Merriam-Webster.


Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved September 1, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com

Chapter in a book or entry in a reference work


Reference list
Format

Author


Author, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of chapter or entry. In E.E. Editor (Ed.),Title of work (xx ed.,Vol. xx, pp.xxx–xxx). Publisher.


Author, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of chapter or entry. In E.E. Editor (Ed.),Title of work (xx ed.,Vol. xx, pp.xxx–xxx).


No author


Title of entry. (Copyright year). Title of reference work (pp. xxx–xxx). Publisher.


Title of entry. (Copyright year). Title of reference work (pp. xxx–xxx). Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxx OR https://xxxxx

Example

Author


Dalleck, L. C. (2017). Balance training. In T. Moy (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Fitness (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 83–86). Gale. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3663000031/GVRL?u=monash&sid=GVRL&xid=f637eb38


No Author


Fire. (1981). Penguin-Hellenews English-Greek dictionary (p. 313). Hellenews-Paidia.


Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Social distancing. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved September 1, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20distancing

Tips

  • For a print copy indicate edition and number of volumes (if multi-volumes).
  • Do not indicate edition if it is the first.
  • For online works, add the DOI or URL at the end of the reference; use the DOI in preference to the URL.
  • If an online work is updated regularly, include a retrieved from date.
  • When the author and publisher are the same enter the name only once in the author position.

Before citing legal resources, please refer to your faculty requirements for legal citations (check your assignment instructions or ask the chief examiner for the unit). Legal writing typically uses the AGLC4, which is a footnoting style. You may also need to refer to the Law citing and referencing subject guide for examples of commonly cited Australian legal examples using the AGLC. These examples cite according to AGLC guidelines, while aligning with APA's in-text referencing style.

Cases


In-text citation
Format

Case Name (Year)
Refer to the year in the first citation but it is not required in subsequent citations. Refer to the page or paragraph number if necessary.

Example

Tame v New South Wales (2002)


In the case of Tame v New South Wales (2002) the judge stated . . .

Tips
  • Go to Getting started > In-text citation to view other examples such as multiple authors.
Reference list
Format

Case Name (Year) Volume Law Report Series Starting Page

Example

Tame v New South Wales (2002) 211 CLR 317

Legislation


In-text citation
Format

Title Year (Jurisdiction)
The year is considered part of the title so it is italicised. Refer to the section or rule number if you need to pinpoint your reference.

Example

The Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) states . . .


The Crimes Act 1958 (Vic, s.3) states . . .

Tips
  • Go to Getting started > In-text citation to view other examples such as multiple authors.
Reference list
Format

Title Year (Jurisdiction)

Example

Crimes Act 1958 (Vic)

Tips

The following abbreviations should we used for Australian jurisdictions:

  • Cth
  • ACT
  • NSW
  • NT
  • QLD
  • SA
  • Tas
  • Vic
  • WA

Patents


In-text citation
Format

(Author’s surname, Year)

Example

This was seen in an Australian study (Couch, 2017).)


OR


Couch (2017) suggests that . . .

Reference list
Format

Patent inventor surname, initials. (Year patent issued). Patent title (Country Patent No.). Name of official source of patent information - usually patent office. https://xxxxx

Example

Calaby, R., & Baker, N. (2016). Solar panel mounting arrangement for an evaporative air conditioner (Australian Patent No. 2016101507). IP Australia. https://pericles.ipaustralia.gov.au/ols/auspat/applicationDetails.do?applicationNo=2016101507

Technical standards


Reference list
Format

Standards Organisation. (Year). Title of standard (Standard number). Publisher (print) OR https://xxxxxx

Example

Standards Australia. (2013). Child restraint systems for use in motor vehicles (AS/NZ 1754:2013). https://www.saiglobal.com

Accounting Standards (AASB, AUASB)


Reference list
Format

Standards Organisation. (Year). Title of standard (Standard number). Publisher (print) OR https://xxxxxx

Example

Australian Accounting Standards Board (2021). Exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources (AASB 6). https://aasb.gov.au/admin/file/content105/c9/AASB6_08-15_COMPmar20_07-21.pdf

Tips

  • For the year element, use the copyright year, found on the second page of each standard.

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