Citing and referencing: APA 7th

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

American Psychological Association (APA) 7th style

APA style is an author-date citation style. It was developed mainly for use in psychology, but has also been adopted by other disciplines.

There are two major components to the APA author-date style

  • the in-text author-date citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document, e.g. (Smith, 2010), and
  • the detailed reference list at the end of the document.

All in-text citations must have a corresponding reference list entry, and the converse applies for reference list entries.

This guide is based on more detailed information in:

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Quick online information about APA style.

APA Academic Writer is an online resource designed to assist in the application of APA style formatting rules. Click on Learn > Go to sample references.

Printing this guide: Please note that this guide is designed to be used online. Printing directly from pages in this guide may alter the citation formatting display.