Citing and referencing: APA 7th

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

American Psychological Association (APA) 7th style

APA style is an author-date citation style. It was developed mainly for use in psychology, but has also been adopted by other disciplines.

There are two major components to the APA author-date style:

  • the in-text author-date citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document, e.g., (Smith, 2010), and
  • the detailed reference list at the end of the document.

All in-text citations must have a corresponding reference list entry, and the converse applies for reference list entries.

This guide is based on more detailed information in:

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

APA Style and Grammar Guidelines is part of the official APA website and provides useful information and guidelines. 

APA Academic Writer is an online resource designed to assist in the application of APA style formatting rules. 

Printing this guide: Please note that this guide is designed to be used online. Printing directly from pages in this guide may alter the citation formatting display.  Please use the printable quick guide above.