Citing and referencing: Reference list

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Reference list format


  • Requirements for line spacing in assignment reference lists can vary so it is important to check with your lecturer or unit/assignment guide for what the requirements are. Unless otherwise advised, the APA style below should be used.
  • The APA 7th Style manual specifies the following for the reference list.
    • The word References should appear in bold in title-case and be centred at the top of the page.
    • All reference entries should be double-spaced. To double-space, highlight the reference list then choose "CTRL 2" (PC) or "Command 2" (Mac).
    • All references should be in a "hanging indent" format. (This means that the first line of each reference is flush against the left margin and the subsequent lines of each reference are indented 7 spaces (0.5 inch or 1.27cm, which is the default in Word).
    • To select hanging indent in Word, highlight all references, use the A_Z button to arrange in alphabetical order by first listed author. Right click and chose paragraph. Paragraph>Indents and Spacing>Indentation>Special box>Hanging>1.27cm>(If not already double-spaced choose Line spacing>Double)>OK
    • Do not add an extra line between references. The hanging indent (see above) makes them distinguishable.
    • All of the references in the reference list must also be cited in the text.
    • All references cited in text must also be included in the reference list (unpublished items, such as personal
      correspondence, are an exception).
    • List the references in alphabetical order by author family name according to the first listed author. (Note: The order of the authors on a document is important. Do not rearrange them).
    • Where there are two articles with the same authors and date, order the references alphabetically by article title and add a letter suffix to the year of copyright. See the sample reference list below for example.
    • Provide organisation names in full, unless they are obviously recognisable as abbreviations (e.g., APA for American Psychological Association).
    • Do not add full stops to URLs (e.g.,
    • In an article, chapter or book title capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle and any proper nouns. A proper noun is a person, place or entity. (Note: Book titles should be italicised).
    • In a periodical, journal, or serial title, give the title in full, in title-case. The title should be italicised (e.g., Harvard Business Review).
    • APA requires use of an en dash between pagination numbers. An en dash is longer and thinner than a hyphen. Type in an en dash, or if an en dash is unavailable on the keyboard, use a single hyphen. In either case there is no space before or after. We recommend consulting your faculty staff to determine their requirements.
    • Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read that source when you cite it.


  • Please note: the sample reference list below is only in single line spacing to conserve room on this page for display. The Corporations Act listed below follows the AGLC format for legal citations.

For more examples, see Academic Writer, sample references.

Author layout guidance

Where a publication has: List authors in the reference list as:
One (1) author Author, A. A.
Two (2) authors Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
Three (3) to twenty (20) authors (inclusive)

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., & Author, T. T.

Twenty-one (21) or more authors - list first nineteen (19) authors, add a three dot ellipsis, then the last author

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.

No author Transfer the title to the author space.
Two or more works by same author

Use author's name for all entries and list entries by year - Earliest year comes first.

If they are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, assigning a suffix of a, b, c, d, etc. after the year. For example (Smith, 2011a, 2011b).

A group or corporate author Spell the name out.

Sample reference list


Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017, June). Childhood education and care, Australia (No. 4402.0)

Beckett, S. T. (2008). The science of chocolate (2nd ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry. 

Branch, S., Ramsay, S., & Barker, M. (2008). The bullied boss: A conceptual exploration of upwards bullying. In A. Glendon, B. M. Thompson, & B. Myors (Eds.), Advances in organisational psychology (pp. 93–112).

Cioe, J. (2012). The normal distribution [Lecture notes]. Moodle@MU.

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth).

Department of Health and Ageing. (2012). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health performance framework 2012 report.

MacIntyre, S. (2008, August 10-12). Participation in the classroom, productivity in the workforce: Unfulfilled expectations [Paper presentation]. Australian Council for Educational Research Conference, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Orwell, G. (2000). Nineteen eighty-four. Penguin Books. (Original work published 1949)

Preston, R. (2010). Observations in acute care: Evidence based approach to patient safety. British Journal of Nursing, 19, 442–447.

Ramsey, J. K., & McGrew, W. C. (2005). Object play in great apes: Studies in nature and captivity. In A. D. Pellegrini & P. K. Smith (Eds.), The nature of play: Great apes and humans (pp. 89–112). Guilford Press.

Sievers, W. (1966). Monash University [Photograph]. Trove.

Smith, A. (2007a). Emerging in between: The multi-level governance of renewable energy in the English regions. Energy Policy, 35(12), 6266–6280.

Smith, A. (2007b). Translating sustainabilities between green niches and socio-technical regimes. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 19(4), 427–450.

Tranquilli, A. L., Lorenzi, S., Buscicchio, G., Di Tommaso, M., Mazzanti, L., & Emanuelli, M. (2014). Female fetuses are more reactive when mother eats chocolate. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 27(1), 72–74. 

Winter, J., Hunter, S., Sim, J., & Crome, P. (2011). Hands-on therapy interventions for upper limb motor dysfunction following stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011(6).

Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., Weiss, L., Anderson, E. R., Green, S. M., & Griffin, W. A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 843–856.

World Health Organization. (2020, September 24). How to wear a fabric mask safely during COVID-19: Don'ts. [Video]. Facebook.