Citing and referencing: Audio, music and visual media

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Audio, music and visual media

Audio, music and visual media, includes films and documentaries, online streaming videos (such as YouTube videos), podcasts, TV shows and episodes, music albums and tracks, as well as static objects such as music scores, maps, artworks or photographs.

Some of the descriptions of mediums are: [Film], [Video], [TV series], [TV series episode], [Webinar], [Album], [Song], [Audio podcast], [Video podcast], [Painting], [Photograph], [Map]. These can be adapted to best suit the material you are citing, keeping in mind you should use the description that best enables your reader to locate the material.


Films and video recordings of films


Author, A. A. (role in production). (Year). Title of movie [Format e.g. Film or DVD with commentary]. Name of Studio.


Scorsese, M., (Producer) & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Film]. Paramount Pictures.


Video file (e.g. Youtube video)

  • The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author, even if they did not create the work.
  • If both an author's real name and username are known, provide the real name followed by the username in square brackets
  • If the real name of the author is unknown, use just the username as the name. Do not abbreviate the username and do not put it in square brackets.
  • When referencing a TED talk retrieved directly from the TED website, list the presenter of the talk as the author. 
  • When retrieving a TED talk from YouTube; list TED as the author (as they are the 'uploader').

Author, A. A. OR Author screen name. (YYYY, Month DD {of video post}). Title of video [Video]. Title of website. https://xxxxx


Fonda, J. (2019, December). Why I protest for climate justice [Video]. TED Conferences.

MSNBC. (2020, January 7). Julián Castro endorses Elizabeth Warren [Video]. YouTube.


Television and radio programs - single episode in a series


Author, A. A. (role in production). (Year of release). Title of episode [Format]. In A. Author (role in production), Title of series. Production company.


Stem, J. D. (Writer), Weiss, D. (Writer), & Muzquiz, R. (Director). (1996). Chanukah [TV series episode]. In V. Coffey, G. Csupo, & A. Klasky (Executive producers), Rugrats. Nickelodeon.

Thomason, M., Rudd, P., & Fineri, W. (Writers/Directors). (2007). North west passage [TV series episode]. In T. Wright (Supervising Producer), Captain Cook: Obsession and discovery. Film Australia.


Television and radio programs - series or single program

  • A single programme is called a Television broadcast.
  • Specify the broadcast date for a single programme.

Author, A. A. (role in production). (Year of release). Title of program [Format]. Production company.


Leonard, D. (Producer), & de Pieri, S. (Presenter). (2009). A gondola on the Murray [TV series]. ABC Television.



If you do not know the host's name, you can list the executive producers instead.


Host Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Host screen name. (Host). (YYYY, Month DD{of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast].  https://xxxxx






Podcast Series

Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2009–present). Radiolab [Audio podcast]. WNYC.

Podcast episode

Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2018, February 14). Smarty plants [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC.

Kruger, C. (Host). (2020, November 16). Yarrabil girrebbah: Singing Indigenous language alive [Audio podcast episode]. In APATA Podcast. The Australian Performing Arts Teachers Association.


Online images

Format Author, A. A. or Creator, A. A. (Year). Title of image [Online image]. Publisher. https://xxxxx


Vinci, L. (2011).  Mona Lisa  [Online image]. Wikimedia Commons.


Musical score - a single score


Author, A. A. (Composer), & Author, B. B. (Lyricist). (Year). Title of work [Format]. Production company. https://xxxxx (Original work published YYYY)


Tchaikovsky, P. (ca. 1920). Serenade for string orchestra, Op. 48 [Musical score]. Breitkopf & Hartel.,_Op.48_(Tchaikovsky,_Pyotr) (Original work published 1880)


Musical score - part of a collection or anthology


Composer, A. A. (Year of release). Title of score [Format]. In Title of collection (pages of score in collection). Publisher.


Whitfield, N., & Strong, B. (1966). I heard it through the grapevine [Vocal score]. In Motown anthology (pp. 98–104). Hal Leonard.


Musical score, with an editor


Composer, A. A. (Year of release). Title of score [Format]. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of collection (pages of score in collection). Publisher.


Porter, C. (1953). It's all right with me [Vocal score]. In W. L. Simon (Ed.), Treasury of great show tunes (pp. 104–110). Reader's Digest.


Music recordings

  • Include the side, band or track number in in-text citation
  • Include artist in square brackets after song title if Artist is different from the Writer of the song. 

Composer, A. A. (Copyright year). Song title [Recorded by if artist is different from the writer]. On Title of CD [Format]. Production company. (date of recording)


In-text citation

Reference list entry


"The Last of the Pioneers" (Williamson, 2003, track 5)

Badnews, U. R. (1927). We only live twice [recorded by P. Murray]. On Resurrection. Ibis Records. (1999).


Map or chart - electronic

You may include a retrieved date if there is no date on the item.


Creator, A. A. (Year). Title of map [Type of map]. Publisher. https://xxxxx


Idaho Department of Commerce. (2010). Idaho Rivers [Map]. 


Map or chart - singular sheets

Format Author, A. A. (Year). Title of map or chart [Format]. Publisher.

Metsker Maps. (1979). Metsker's map of Island county, Washington [Map]. Metsker Maps.  


Map or chart - book


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of map or chart [Format]. In B. B. Author, Title of Publication. Publisher.


Magocsi, P. R. (2003). Population movements, 1944–1948 [Map]. In P. R. Magocsi, Historical atlas of central Europe. (Rev. & ex. ed.). University of Washington Press.


Works of art (paintings, sculptures etc) - in physical form, or online

  • Provide a link to the artwork or exhibition on the museum (or gallery) website if available.





Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of art [Format]. Museum name, Museum location.

Artists, A. A., & Artist, B. B., (Year). Title of art [Format]. Museum name, Museum location. https://xxxxx

Curator, A.  (Year(s) of exhibition). Title of exhibition [Format] Gallery name, Gallery location.

Note: When the curator is unknown move the title of the exhibition to the author position, see example below.


Nolan, S. (1947). The Trial [Painting]. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, ACT, Australia .

Whistler, J. M. (1878). Nocturne: The Thames at Battersea [Lithograph]. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, United States.

The Impressionists: Masterpieces from the Musée d'Orsay [Exhibition]. (2004). The National Gallery of Victoria, St. Kilda Road, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.