Citing and referencing: Audio, music and visual media

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Audio, music and visual media

Audio, music and visual media, includes films and documentaries, online streaming videos (such as YouTube videos), podcasts, TV shows and episodes, music albums and tracks, as well as static objects such as music scores, maps, artworks or photographs.

Some of the descriptions of mediums are: [Film], [Video], [TV series], [TV series episode], [Webinar], [Album], [Song], [Audio podcast], [Video podcast], [Painting], [Photograph], [Map]. These can be adapted to best suit the material you are citing, keeping in mind you should use the description that best enables your reader to locate the material.

 

Films and video recordings of films

Format

Author, A. A. (role in production). (Year). Title of movie [Format e.g. Film or DVD with commentary]. Name of Studio.

Example

Scorsese, M., (Producer) & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Film]. Paramount Pictures.

 

Video file (e.g. Youtube video)

  • The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author, even if they did not create the work.
  • If both an author's real name and username are known, provide the real name followed by the username in square brackets
  • If the real name of the author is unknown, use just the username as the name. Do not abbreviate the username and do not put it in square brackets.
  • When referencing a TED talk retrieved directly from the TED website, list the presenter of the talk as the author. 
  • When retrieving a TED talk from YouTube; list TED as the author (as they are the 'uploader').
Format  

Author, A. A. OR Author screen name. (YYYY, Month DD {of video post}). Title of video [Video]. Title of website. https://xxxxx

Examples

Fonda, J. (2019, December). Why I protest for climate justice [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/jane_fonda_why_i_protest_for_climate_justice

MSNBC. (2020, January 7). Julián Castro endorses Elizabeth Warren [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uk2Tzc8H5po

 

Television and radio programs - single episode in a series

Format

Author, A. A. (role in production). (Year of release). Title of episode [Format]. In A. Author (role in production), Title of series. Production company.

Examples

Stem, J. D. (Writer), Weiss, D. (Writer), & Muzquiz, R. (Director). (1996). Chanukah [TV series episode]. In V. Coffey, G. Csupo, & A. Klasky (Executive producers), Rugrats. Nickelodeon.

Thomason, M., Rudd, P., & Fineri, W. (Writers/Directors). (2007). North west passage [TV series episode]. In T. Wright (Supervising Producer), Captain Cook: Obsession and discovery. Film Australia.

 

Television and radio programs - series or single program

  • A single programme is called a Television broadcast.
  • Specify the broadcast date for a single programme.
Format

Author, A. A. (role in production). (Year of release). Title of program [Format]. Production company.

Example

Leonard, D. (Producer), & de Pieri, S. (Presenter). (2009). A gondola on the Murray [TV series]. ABC Television.

 

Podcasts

If you do not know the host's name, you can list the executive producers instead.

Format

Host Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Host screen name. (Host). (YYYY, Month DD{of podcast}). Title of podcast [Audio podcast].  https://xxxxx

Examples

 

 

 

 

Podcast Series

Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2009–present). Radiolab[Audio podcast]. WNYC. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab

Podcast episode

Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2018, February 14). Smarty plants [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC.  https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab/articles/smarty-plants

 

Online images

Format Author, A. A. or Creator, A. A. (Year). Title of image [Online image]. Publisher. https://xxxxx

Example

Vinci, L. (2011)  Mona Lisa  [Online image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Mona_Lisa%2C_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci%2C_from_C2RMF_retouched.jpg

 

Musical score - a single score

Format

Author, A. A. (Composer), & Author, B. B. (Lyricist). (Year). Title of work [Format]. Production company. https://xxxxx (Original work published YYYY)

Example

Tchaikovsky, P. (ca. 1920). Serenade for string orchestra, Op. 48 [Musical score]. Breitkopf & Hartel. https://imslp.org/wiki/Serenade_for_String_Orchestra,_Op.48_(Tchaikovsky,_Pyotr) (Original work published 1880)

 

Musical score - part of a collection or anthology

Format

Composer, A. A. (Year of release). Title of score [Format]. In Title of collection (pages of score in collection). Publisher.

Example

Whitfield, N., & Strong, B. (1966). I heard it through the grapevine [Vocal score]. In Motown anthology (pp. 98–104). Hal Leonard.

 

Musical score, with an editor

Format

Composer, A. A. (Year of release). Title of score [Format]. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of collection (pages of score in collection). Publisher.

Example

Porter, C. (1953). It's all right with me [Vocal score]. In W. L. Simon (Ed.), Treasury of great show tunes (pp. 104–110). Reader's Digest.

 

Music recordings

  • Include the side, band or track number in in-text citation
  • Include artist in square brackets after song title if Artist is different from the Writer of the song. 
Format

Composer, A. A. (Copyright year). Song title [Recorded by if artist is different from the writer]. On Title of CD [Format]. Production company. (date of recording)

Example

In-text citation

Reference list entry

 
 

"The Last of the Pioneers" (Williamson, 2003, track 5)

Badnews, U. R. (1927). We only live twice [recorded by P. Murray]. On Resurrection. Ibis Records. (1999).

 

Map or chart - electronic

You may include a retrieved date if there is no date on the item.

Format

Creator, A. A. (Year). Title of map [Type of map]. Publisher. https://xxxxx

Example

Idaho Department of Commerce. (2010). Idaho Rivers [Map] http://www.visitidaho.org/mapsimages/maps.aspx 

 

Map or chart - singular sheets

Format Author, A. A. (Year). Title of map or chart [Format]. Publisher.
Example

Metsker Maps. (1979). Metsker's map of Island county, Washington [Map]. Metsker Maps.  

 

Map or chart - book

Format

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of map or chart [Format]. In B. B. Author, Title of Publication. Publisher.

Example

Magocsi, P. R. (2003). Population movements, 1944–1948 [Map]. In P. R. Magocsi, Historical atlas of central Europe. (Rev. & ex. ed.). University of Washington Press.

 

Works of art (paintings, sculptures etc) - in physical form, or online

Formats

Artist, A. A. (Date of creation). Title of art [Format]. Museum name, Museum location.

Artists, A. A., & Artist, B. B., (Year). Title  [Format]. Site name. https://xxxxx

Examples

Nolan, S. (1947). The Trial [Painting]. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, ACT, Australia .

Whistler, J. M. (1878). Nocturne: The Thames at Battersea [Lithograph]. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, United States. https://bit.ly/35crR9u