Citing and referencing: Online Communication / Social Media

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Online Communication / Social Media


Format Last Name, First Name. "Subject Line of Email". Received by First Name Last Name. Date.

Gruen, Mandy. "Re: Academic Integrity." Received by Adele Morrow. 31 Aug. 2017.


Use the email's subject line as the title. For more information, see pg. 29 of the MLA Handbook.






Blog post

Format Last Name, First Name. "Post Title." Title of website, date of post, name of affiliated organisation, URL.

Farkas, Dora. "How to Finish Your Literature Review When You Can’t Stop Reading Articles." Finish Your Thesis with Dora, 1 Aug. 2017,


The title of the post should be in quotation marks, and the name of the website should be in italics.

Use screen name as author name if author name is unknown. If both names are known, place the author's name in square brackets.

If there is an affiliated organisation, it could be the publisher or sponsor of the website, refer to the example format.

For more information, see pages 28-29 of the MLA Handbook.










Comment on a blog post or article

Format Last Name, First Name. "Post Title". Title of Website, date of comment, name of affiliated organisation, URL.

Wymore, Janice. Comment on "How to finish your literature review when you can’t stop reading articles." Finish Your Thesis with Dora, 28 Aug. 2017,


Use screen name as author name if author name is unknown.

For untitled comments on blog posts, precede the title with the phrase "comment on", as shown above.

Use the date the comment was posted.

For more information, see pg. 29 of the MLA Handbook.









Tweet (or other short, untitled message)

Format Last Name, First Name. "Post title." Title of website, date of comment, time, name of affiliated organisation, URL.

@monashunilib. "Writing is a great tool to clarify your ideas. Join us tomorrow for SUAW and work on your writing in a motivating environment #AcWri #PhD." Twitter, 29 Aug 2017, 10:13 a.m., Monash University Library,


Reproduce the full text of the tweet (including hashtags) in place of a title, and enclose in quotation marks.








Online video (YouTube video)

Format Last Name, First Name. "Video title." Title of website, uploaded by First Name Last Name, date uploaded, URL.

"For My Tittas." YouTube, uploaded by Barkaa, 6 Mar. 2020,

"Piirus launch at Monash." YouTube, uploaded by Monash University Library, 8 April 2014,

Behlendorf, Brian. "What If the Internet Could Not Tell a Lie? Blockchain, Fake News, Rumor Mills." YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 29 Aug. 2017,


If the author is the same as the uploader, only cite them once, as shown in the first examples above. 

If the author and uploader are different, then follow the Behlendorf example.

Use the screen name as the author name.











Format "Title of episode." Podcast title, publisher, date, URL.

"You 2.0: Deep Work." Hidden Brain, NPR, 24 July 2017,

Explanation The publisher is usually the broadcaster. If there isn't one, then simply omit that section.