The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Citing and Referencing Style is widely used in electrical, electronic and computing publications. IEEE provides instructions for authors for each type of publication such as journals, magazines, newsletters, and standards.
IEEE is a numbered style with two components:
Sources are numbered in the order in which they are first cited in the text. If the same source is cited later in the text, the same number is given:
'The theory was first put forward in 1987 .'
'Scholtz  has argued ... '
'Several recent studies , , , ,  have suggested ... '
In-Text Citations (Author-Prominent, and Information-Prominent):
How you structure your in-text citations depends on whether the sentence you have written is author-prominent, or information-prominent:
'Hershey and Silio  imply this area is critical to functionality.'
'This area is critical to functionality .'
In-Text Citations (Direct Quotations):
If you are quoting a source directly, include the specific page your quote appears:
'Experts agree this will have a broad impact, and will "require a monitoring and analysis scheme that supports global enterprise systems" [6, p. 118].'
Note: If a source you're quoting does not contain page numbers (e.g. a website), you will not be expected to apply a page number to your quotation.
Further information about formatting In-Text Citations can be found on the In-Text Citations: Further Information page of this Guide.
Detailed information about including different types of sources in your Reference List are available in this Guide. Types of sources covered include:
Many words are abbreviated as part of compiling your reference list using the IEEE Style. You can find out more about these abbreviations on the Reference List: Standard Abbreviations page of this Guide.