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Citing and referencing: Websites

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

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Websites

One Author 

*Websites for a non-academic target audience are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list Fein, B 2011, 'The Patriot Act is at war with the constitution', The American view: God, family, republic, viewed 8 November 2011, http://archive.theamericanview.com/index.php?id=1770
*this is an example of a non-academic website which may be analysed for research purposes. Do not rely on the information in the website-find an academic source instead

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Fein (2011) is an example of an opinion piece providing no supporting evidence.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent In an American website with explicit religious aims, the Patriot Act is depicted as unconstitutional (Fein 2011).
Quoting - Author prominent Fein (2011, para. 10) claims, without supporting statistics, that 'the vast majority of victims of illegal or unconstitutional surveillance under FISA are never informed of the spying'.
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Quoting - Information prominent Websites promoting particular beliefs and values are common; for example the belief that 'Liberty for its own sake is the definition of America' (Fein 2011, para. 17).
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Organisation as author
*Websites for a non-academic target audience are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Victoria 2011, Jumps racing, viewed 24 November 2011, http://www.rspcavic.org/issues-take-action/jumps-racing/
*include initials in round brackets only if the source is cited more than once in-text
*this is an example of a non-academic website. Do not rely on the information in the website (it may be too basic or unreliable) -find an academic source instead

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Victoria (2011) argues against jumps racing, as appropriate to its mission.
*if you have only one in-text citation to a source in your work, you must use the full author name (no initials or abbreviations)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent It is asserted without evidence that the campaign against jumps racing in Victoria attracted strong support (The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals [RSPCA] Victoria 2011).
*first of two or more citations include full name and initials in square brackets
Quoting - Author prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
RSPCA Victoria (2011, para.6) claims, again with no evidence, that jumps racing is 'a small and unprofitable part of the racing industry'.
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*initials for second and subsequent citations ONLY
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
The basis on which claims rest is not given; for example, 'in a jumps race there is a one in 14 chance of injury and a one in 116 chance of death for the racehorse' (RSPCA Victoria 2011, para. 9).
*pinpoint the quote
*initials for second and subsequent citations ONLY

 

Website sponsor as author
*Websites for a non-academic target audience are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list

Better Health Channel 2011, Obesity, viewed 6 January 2012, http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Obesity
*this is an example of a non-academic website. Do not rely on the information in the website (it may be too basic or unreliable) -find an academic source instead

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Better Health Channel (2011) is an education site for the general public.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A website providing basic information for general audience describes a range of diseases relate to obesity (Better Health Channel 2011).
Quoting - Author prominent Better Health Channel (2011, para. 2) presents facts in bullet points or short attention grabbing sentences; for example, 'obesity rates in Australia have more than doubled over the past 20 years'.
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Quoting - Information prominent Summaries and key points are used in preference to detailed evidence and explanation; for example, 'obesity costs Australian taxpayers an estimated $1.5 billion every year in direct health costs' (Better Health Channel 2011, para.10).
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Report from an institution website
*Websites for a non-academic target audience are NOT acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list

Reese, A 2013 'Sectarian and regional conflict in the Middle East', Middle East Security Report 13, Institute for the Study of War, viewed 27 August 2013, http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/SectarianandRegionalConflictintheMiddleEast_3JUL.pdf

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Reese (2013) examines how the Syrian and Iraqi conflicts have spilled into neighbouring countries.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The report covers the escalation of conflict in Syria during 2012 and early 2013 (Reese, 2013).
Quoting - Author prominent Reese (2013) concludes that 'Syria and Iraq have become the battlefronts for a regional conflict that is marked by increase in sectarian rhetoric and violence' with no obvious stabilizing influence (p. 19-20).
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Quoting - Information prominent According to the report, the U.S. 'must pursue a regional strategy, not just a Syria-centric or Iran-centric strategy' (Reese 2013, p. 20).
*pinpoint the quote