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Citing and referencing: Data/Figures/Images

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Harvard Contents

Data/Figures/Images

Figure, print
*figures include diagrams and all types of graphs

Reference list

Bernard, FR 1989, 'Uptake and elimination of coliform bacteria by four marine bivalve mollusks', Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1592-1599.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Bernard (1989, Figure 3) showed that E. coli accumulation is positively correlated with temperature.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent MytiIus edulis tend to accumulate more coliform bacteria than other bivalves (Bernard 1989, Figure 2).
Quoting - Author prominent

*if you reproduce a graph or figure in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Quoting - Information prominent *if you reproduce a graph or figure in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Figure, online
*figures include diagrams and all types of graphs

Reference list

Rittmeyer, EN, Allison, A, Gründler, MC, Thompson, DK & Austin, CC 2012, 'Ecological guild evolution and the discovery of the world's smallest vertebrate', PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 1, p. e29797, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029797

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Rittmeyer et al. (2012, Figure 2) describe a new species of Paedophryne from the south-east of Papua New Guinea.
*use et al. for source with four or more authors (note stop only after ‘al., not after ‘et’)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent MytiIus edulis tend to accumulate more coliform bacteria than other bivalves (Bernard 1989, Figure 2).
Quoting - Author prominent

*if you reproduce a graph or figure in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Quoting - Information prominent *if you reproduce a graph or figure in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Table, print

Reference list

Tenopir, C, King, DW, Boyce, P, Grayson, M & Paulson, K-L 2005, 'Relying on electronic journals: reading patterns of astronomers', Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 786-802.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Tenopir et al. (2005, Table 7) found that astronomers primarily read articles published in the last year.
*use et al. for source with four or more authors (note stop only after ‘al., not after ‘et’)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Astronomers tend to have fewer personal journal subscriptions than other scientists (Tenopir et al. 2005, Table 4).
*use et al.
Quoting - Author prominent

*if you reproduce a table in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Quoting - Information prominent *if you reproduce a table in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Table, online

Reference list

Brazzeal, B 2011, 'Citations to Wikipedia in chemistry journals: a preliminary study', Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, Fall 2011, viewed 9 February 2012, http://www.istl.org/11-fall/refereed2.html

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Brazzeal (2011, Table 1) found that most citations to Wikipedia in Chemistry journals were for general scientific information.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Relatively few citations to Wikipedia are for specific mathematical formulas or chemical properties (Brazzeal 2011, Table 1).
Quoting - Author prominent

*if you reproduce a table in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Quoting - Information prominent *if you reproduce a table in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Map, print

Reference list

Department of Transport and Communications 1984, Sound and television broadcasting stations: field strength contour maps, map, 1:2,500,000, Department of Transport and Communications, '2NB Broken Hill', 31°56‟S 141°29’E.
*give the author, year, title of the map collection, map, scale, publisher, map sheet name, and latitude and longitude if possible

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Data from the Department of Transport and Communications (1985) indicates that broadcast signal strength was restricted around Broken Hill.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent In the early 1980s, SBS broadcasting from Broken Hill reached as far south as the town of Morgan Vale (Department of Transport and Communications 1985).
Quoting - Author prominent

* if you reproduce a map in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Quoting - Information prominent *if you reproduce a map in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Map, online

Reference list

Bowen, T 1777, A new & accurate map of Asia: drawn from the most approved modern maps & charts, Middleton‟s complete system of geography, C Middleton (ed.), map, ca. 1:33,000,000. No Publisher (Printed for J. Cooke) London , viewed 13 January 2012, http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-rm185

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

An early map (Bowen 1777) contributes to the depiction of Australia, as terra nullius.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A 1777 map of Australia employs the older name of New Holland (Bowen 1777).
Quoting - Author prominent

*if you reproduce a map in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Quoting - Information prominent *if you reproduce a map in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Atlas, print

Reference list

Schwartzberg, JE (ed.) 1992, A historical atlas of South Asia, Oxford University Press, New York.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Schwartzberg (ed. 1992) provides comprehensive cartographic interpretation of historical changes in South Asia.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Images of primary sources are provided with each set of maps (Schwartzberg ed. 1992).
Quoting - Author prominent

Schwartzberg (ed. 1992, p. 215) claims that 'India's struggle for freedom was sympathetically regarded in much of the rest of the world'.
*pinpoint the quote
*if you reproduce a map from the atlas in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Quoting - Information prominent 'It is quite characteristic for South Asia that… societies at different developmental stages have coexisted for long periods' (Schwartzberg ed. 1992, p. 155).
*pinpoint the quote
*ellipsis of three dots indicates word/s omitted
*if you reproduce a map from the atlas in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Atlas, online

Reference list

Cook, J 2005, The Hatfield SCT lunar atlas: photographic atlas for Meade, Celestron and other SCT telescopes, e-book, British Astronomical Association, London, viewed 13 January 2012, http://www.springerlink.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/content/j35236/#section=549465&page=2&locus=47

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

According to Cook (2005, Plate 2d) the Montes Caucasus range on the moon reaches 6000 metres in height.
*indicate map/photograph number
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Clarity of images of the moon's surface depends greatly on favourable conditions (Cook 2005).
Quoting - Author prominent

Cook (2005, p. 2 of 2) reports that 'water ice (or at least water molecules) may have been detected'.
*pinpoint the quote
* if you reproduce a map from the atlas in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Quoting - Information prominent Maps of the moon need updating due to 'changes in lunar nomenclature' (Cook 2005, Introduction p. 1 of 2).
*pinpoint the quote
*if you reproduce a map from the atlas in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Electronic dataset, doi
*only applies to published raw data uploaded to a data repository

Reference list

Meachen–Samuels, J & Van Valkenburgh, B 2009, 'Data from: Craniodental indicators of prey size preference in the Felidae‟, electronic data set, Dryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.6h722

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The data of Meachen-Samules and Van Valkenburgh (2009) includes muzzle width measurements from 35 species of felines.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Premolar length in museum specimens of Otocolobus manul ranges from 10.2 mm to 11.9 mm (Meachen-Samules & Van Valkenburgh 2009).
Quoting - Author prominent

*do not quote raw data, summarise instead

Quoting - Information prominent *do not quote raw data, summarise instead

Computer software, online

Reference list

Holland, S 2009, 'Analytic rarefaction', Version 2.0, software, Hunt Mountain Software, Athens http://www.huntmountainsoftware.com/html/rarefaction.html

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Holland (2009) provides a simple tool for rarefaction.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Diversity curves were constructed using Analytic rarefaction (Holland 2009).
Quoting - Author prominent

*not applicable

Quoting - Information prominent *not applicable

Computer software, no programmer, online
*use title in place of author

Reference list

EndNote X5 2011, Version 15, Build 5478, software, Thompson Reuters, Carlsbad, http://www.endnote.com/enhome.asp
*Give the version and build number, where available, even if the version number is part of the software title

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Reference management software, such as EndNote X5 (2011) has become commonplace.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Downloaded journal articles can be attached to individual records (EndNote X5 2011).
Quoting - Author prominent

*not applicable

Quoting - Information prominent *not applicable

Web software (e.g. Flash and Java applets, other browser-based learning objects)

Reference list

Geoscience Data Repository Maps 2011, web software, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, available http://gdr.ess.nrcan.gc.ca/e

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Holland (2009) provides a simple tool for rarefaction.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Diversity curves were constructed using Analytic rarefaction (Holland 2009).
Quoting - Author prominent

*not applicable

Quoting - Information prominent *not applicable

Source code

Reference list

Reiche, P & Ford, F 2002, ‘The ur-quan masters’, Version 0.7.0, source code, Toys for Bob, Novato, California, available http://sourceforge.net/projects/sc2/files/UQM/0.7/uqm-0.7.0-source.tgz/download

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Reiche and Ford (2002) provide a simple example of collision detection code.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The collision detection employed is somewhat rudimentary, however (Reiche & Ford 2002).
Quoting - Author prominent *long excerpts of code should be reproduced as a figure, see Appendix A for figure examples
Quoting - Information prominent *long excerpts of code should be reproduced as a figure, see Appendix A for figure examples

CD-ROM/DVD-ROM
*stand alone data discs, not audio discs or software

Reference list

International Financial Statistics 2008, CD-ROM, International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C.
*substitute DVD-ROM for CD-ROM where appropriate

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Financial data given in International Financial Statistics (2008) has been extensively analysed.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Analysis was facilitated by the availability of large financial statistics datasets (International Financial Statistics 2008).
Quoting - Author prominent *not applicable
Quoting - Information prominent *not applicable

Database, online
*use only for the database itself

Reference list

Froese, R & Pauly, D (eds.) 2011, FishBase, online database, FishBase Consortium, Kiel, viewed 7 December 2011, http://www.fishbase.org

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Froese and Pauly (eds. 2011) provide dorsal spine data for many species in the family Mugilidae.
*use and in sentence
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Analysis of dorsal spines facilitated by the availability of online databases (Forese & Pauly eds. 2011).
*use & in citation
Quoting - Author prominent *to refer to a specific piece of information held in a database, use the appropriate reference style for that piece of information
Quoting - Information prominent
*to refer to a specific piece of information held in a database, use the appropriate reference style for that piece of information

Work of art, viewed in person

Reference list

Pollock, J 1952, Blue Poles, painting, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, viewed 18 March 2011.
*indicate type of artwork as necessary (e.g. photograph, sculpture, collage, etc)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Pollock's (1952) painting is textually dense and layered.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The vivid colours and textures draw the hand, in imagination, toward the painting (Pollock 1952).
Quoting - Author prominent *not applicable
Quoting - Information prominent
*not applicable

Images, online

Reference list

Cattani, D 2011, CTL-005 John, Christian and Ace in the showroom of Sophisto-Cat, online image, viewed 28 October 2011, http://www.christianthelionprints.com/ctlshop/
*cite details and URL of location (e.g. web page) on which the image was viewed

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Cattani's (2011) photograph of Christian the lion in his owners‟ showroom is part of a series.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A lion photographed in a London showroom by Cattani (2011) has been used to generate income.
Quoting - Author prominent *if you reproduce an image in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A
Quoting - Information prominent
*if you reproduce an image in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A

Images from a database, known creator,

Reference list

Kandinsky, V 1914, Panel for Edwin R. Campbell no. 2, digital image of painting, Artstor, ID number 79450, viewed 23 November 2011, http://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=79450

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Kandinsky (1914) explored the use of brilliant colour to express emotional states.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The painting utilises abstract forms and lush colour to demonstrate the similarity between painting and music (Kandinsky 1914).
Quoting - Author prominent *if you reproduce an image in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A
Quoting - Information prominent
*Not applicable

Images from a database, unknown creator
*use title

Reference list

Bird: an artwork 1993, John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland digital image collection, image number 7116/3/16, viewed 23 November 2011, http://hdl.handle.net/10462/deriv/151889

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Bird: an artwork (1993) was created as part of a larger project involving child artists.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The artwork demonstrates technical competence in a young child (Bird: an artwork 1993).
Quoting - Author prominent *if you reproduce an image in your work you must provide a caption and citation as shown in Appendix A
Quoting - Information prominent
*Not applicable

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