Skip to content

Citing and referencing: Books

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Warning

Warning symbolThis guide is no longer being maintained as the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook has been replaced by the 8th edition. Only use the 7th edition under direction of your lecturer or tutor. Please click here to go to the MLA 8th library guide.

Tips from the MLA Handbook

See the handbook p.129 for details on formatting (e.g hanging indent and double line spacing). The examples in this Guide are based on more detailed information in:

Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Mod. Lang. Assn., 2009, Print.

Publishers' Names

In the list of works cited, shortened forms of publishers’ names immediately follow the cities of publication. e.g.

U of Chicago P not University of Chicago Press
McGraw not McGraw-Hill, Inc.

For additional information, see p. 247-249 of the MLA Handbook.

If the title page lists two or more publishers—not just two or more offices of the same publisher—include all of them, in the order given, as part of the publication information. Place a semicolon after the name of each publisher except the last. e.g.

Duff, J. Wight. A Literary History of Rome: From the Origins to the Close of the Golden Age. Ed. A. M. Duff. 3rd ed. 1953. London: Benn; New York: Barnes, 1967. Print.

Tomlinson, Janis A., ed. Goya: Images of Women. Washington: Natl. Gallery of Art; New Haven: Yale UP, 2002. Print.

Wells, H. G. The Time Machine. 1895. London: Dent; Rutland: Tuttle, 1992. Print.

For additional information, see p.173-174 of the MLA Handbook.

Books

Book with a single author

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication

Example

Knowles, Ric. Reading the Material Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. Print.

Chopra-Grant, Mike. Cinema and History: The Telling of Stories. New York: Wallflower, 2008. Print. 

In text citation

The theory is proposed in a recent essay (Chopra-Grant 43).
or
Chopra-Grant proposes the theory in a recent essay (43).

Book with two authors

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication

Example

Allain, Paul, and Jen Harvie. The Routledge Companion to Theatre and Performance.
London: Routledge, 2006. Print.

Desmond, John M. and Peter Hawkes. Adaptation: Studying Film and Literature. Boston: McGraw, 2006. Print.

In text citation

Analysis of the Simpsons parody of Poe's "The Raven" (Desmond and Hawkes 218-222) ...
or
Desmond and Hawkes' analysis of the Simpsons parody of Poe's "The Raven" (218-222) ...

Book with three authors

Example

Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. 3rd ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2008. Print.

In text citation

The authors explain how citations help your readers (Booth, Colomb and Williams 196).
or
Booth, Colomb and Williams explain how citations help your readers (196).

Book with more than three authors

Example

Zarrilli, Phillip B., et al. Theatre Histories: An Introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

or

Zarrilli, Phillip B., Bruce McConachie, Gary Jay Williams and Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei. Theatre Histories: An Introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

In text citation

The preface describes how the authors present overviews and case studies of theatre in many world cultures (Zarrilli et al. 196).
or
The preface describes how Zarrilli, McConachie, Williams and Sorgenfrei present overviews and case studies of theatre in many world cultures (196).

Edited books

Lastname, Firstname, ed. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

Examples

Stevens, George, Jr., ed. Conversations with the Great Moviemakers of Hollywood's Golden Age at the American Film Institute. New York: A.A. Knopf, 2006. Print.

Newcomb, Horace, ed. Television: The Critical View. 7th ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2007. Print.

A chapter from an edited book

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Chapter." Title of Book. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium of Publication.

Example

Banks, Miranda J. “A Boy for All Planets: Roswell, Smallville and the Teen Male Melodrama.” Teen TV: Genre, Consumption, Identity. Ed. Glyn Davis and Kay Dickinson. London: British Film Institute, 2004. 17-28. Print.

In text citation

According to Banks recent findings (Banks 25) ...
or
According to research by Banks (25) ...

An essay or short story in an edited collection

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Essay/Short Story." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium of Publication.

Examples

Gurr, Andrew. “A New Theatre Historicism." From Script to Stage in Early Modern England. Ed. Peter Holland and Stephen Orgel. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 71-88. Print.

Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty." 21 Essential American Short Stories. Ed. Leslie Pockell. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2011. 280-84. Print.

In text citation

An essay which presents a contemporary perspective (Gurr 72) ...
or
As Gurr has explained in From Script to Stage in Early Modern England (72) ...

A reprinted essay or short story in a collection

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Essay/Short Story." Title of original publication. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Rpt. in Title of Collection containing the reprint. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Vol. Place. Publisher, Year of reprint. Page rage of reprint. Medium of Publication.

Example

Haigh, A.E. "Dramatic Contests at Athens." The Attic Theatre: A Description of the Stage and Theatre of the Athenians, and of the Dramatic  Performances at Athens. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1898:1-36. Rpt. in Classical and Medieval Literature Criticism. Ed. Lynn M. Zott. Vol. 51. Detroit. Gale, 2002. 3-12. Print. 

In text citation

An essay written at the close of the nineteenth century explains that dramatic performances were confined to the two great festivals of Dionysus (Haigh  3).
or
Haigh describes how dramatic performances were confined to the two great festivals of Dionysus in an essay from The Attic Theatre (3).

Further examples (Citation only)

An edited book in a series

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname, eds. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication. Series name no.

Print Example

Markantonatos, Andreas and Bernhard Zimmermann, eds. Crisis on Stage: Tragedy and Comedy in Late Fifth-Century Athens. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012. Print. Trends in Classics 13.

Online Example

Markantonatos, Andreas and Bernhard Zimmermann, eds. Crisis on Stage: Tragedy and Comedy in Late Fifth-Century Athens. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012. Web. Trends in Classics 13. 8 Feb. 2013.

Book with Translator

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Trans. Translator's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.

Metz, Christian. Language and Cinema. Trans. Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton, 1974. Print.

Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler and Other Plays. Trans. Una Ellis-Fermor. London: Penguin, 1950. Print.
NB: This example contains a title, Hedda Gabler, within a title which is not italicised

Book with illustrator prominent

Illustrator's Lastname, Firstname, illus. Title of Book. By Author's Firstname Lastname. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

Denslow, W. W., illus. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. By L. Frank Baum. Introd. Regina Barreca. New York: Signet-Penguin, 2006. Print.

Later edition of a Book

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. ed. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication

Example

Corrigan, Timothy. A Short Guide to Writing about Film. 8th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print.

An Introduction, Preface, Foreward, or Afterword

Begin with the name of the author of the part, then give the name of the part being cited, capitalised but neither italicised nor enclosed in quotation marks.

Author of foreword Lastname, Firstname. Foreword. Title of Book. By Author's Firstname Lastname(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium of Publication.

Example

Flora, Reis. Foreword. A Discography of Hindustani and Karnatic Music. Comp. Michael S. Kinnear. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1985. ix-x. Print.

Example of an edited book which includes chapters by other authors:

Kolker, Robert. Introduction. Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho: A Casebook. Ed. Robert Kolker. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 23-27. Web. 23 March 2012.

Book with a corporate author

Organisation name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication

Example

Australian Film Commission.  Documentary Production in Australia: A Collection of Key Data. Sydney: Australian Film Commission, 2008. Print.

Book with a corporate author prepared by an editor

Organisation name. Title of Book. Ed. Firstname Lastname. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

Example

Australian Theatre Workshop. The Best of the One Act Plays. Ed. Mathew Clausen. Melbourne: Pearson, 2011. Print.

Essay in booklet accompanying a DVD

Vicari, Justin. “Essay.” All that Heaven Allows. Dir. Douglas Sirk. 1955. Madman Entertainment. 2008.

Book with a single author (online - print equivalent available)

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Title of the database or Web site. Medium of Publication. Date of access.

Example

Spigel, Lynn. Make Room for TV: Television and the Family Ideal in Postwar America. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1992ACLS Humanities. Web. 18 June 2012.

In text citation

The description of the home transformed into a theatre (Spigel 99) ... or Spigel's description of the home transformed into a theatre (99) ...

Book with a single author (online - no print equivalent)

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Title of the database or Web site. Medium of Publication. Date of access.

Book with a single author

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication

Example

Knowles, Ric. Reading the Material Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. Print.

Chopra-Grant, Mike. Cinema and History: The Telling of Stories. New York: Wallflower, 2008. Print. 

In text citation

The theory is proposed in a recent essay (Chopra-Grant 43).
or
Chopra-Grant proposes the theory in a recent essay (43).

Chapter from a book with a single author

Example

Corrigan, Timothy. "Writing about the Movies." A Short Guide to Writing about Film. 5th ed. New York: Longman, 2003. 1-16. Print.

In text citation

The authors explain how citations help your readers (Corrigan 6).
or
Corrigan explains how citations help your readers (6).

Book with two authors

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication

Example

Allain, Paul, and Jen Harvie. The Routledge Companion to Theatre and Performance.
London: Routledge, 2006. Print.

Desmond, John M. and Peter Hawkes. Adaptation: Studying Film and Literature. Boston: McGraw, 2006. Print.

In text citation

Analysis of the Simpsons parody of Poe's "The Raven" (Desmond and Hawkes 218-222) ...
or
Desmond and Hawkes' analysis of the Simpsons parody of Poe's "The Raven" (218-222) ...

Book with three authors

Example

Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. 3rd ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2008. Print.

In text citation

The authors explain how citations help your readers (Booth, Colomb and Williams 196).
or
Booth, Colomb and Williams explain how citations help your readers (196).

Book with more than three authors

Example

Zarrilli, Phillip B., et al. Theatre Histories: An Introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

or

Zarrilli, Phillip B., Bruce McConachie, Gary Jay Williams and Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei. Theatre Histories: An Introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

In text citation

The preface describes how the authors present overviews and case studies of theatre in many world cultures (Zarrilli et al. 196).
or
The preface describes how Zarrilli, McConachie, Williams and Sorgenfrei present overviews and case studies of theatre in many world cultures (196).

Edited books

Lastname, Firstname, ed. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

Examples

Stevens, George, Jr., ed. Conversations with the Great Moviemakers of Hollywood's Golden Age at the American Film Institute. New York: A.A. Knopf, 2006. Print.

Newcomb, Horace, ed. Television: The Critical View. 7th ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2007. Print.

A chapter from an edited book

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Chapter." Title of Book. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium of Publication.

Example

Banks, Miranda J. “A Boy for All Planets: Roswell, Smallville and the Teen Male Melodrama.” Teen TV: Genre, Consumption, Identity. Ed. Glyn Davis and Kay Dickinson. London: British Film Institute, 2004. 17-28. Print.

In text citation

According to Banks recent findings (Banks 25) ...
or
According to research by Banks (25) ...

An essay in an edited collection

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium of Publication.

Example

Gurr, Andrew. “A New Theatre Historicism.” From Script to Stage in Early Modern England. Ed. Peter Holland and Stephen Orgel. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 71-88. Print.

In text citation

An essay which presents a contemporary perspective (Gurr 72) ...
or
As Gurr has explained in From Script to Stage in Early Modern England (72) ...

 

Further examples (Citation only)

An edited book in a series

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname, eds. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication. Series name no.

Print Example

Markantonatos, Andreas and Bernhard Zimmermann, eds. Crisis on Stage: Tragedy and Comedy in Late Fifth-Century Athens. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012. Print. Trends in Classics 13.

Online Example

Markantonatos, Andreas and Bernhard Zimmermann, eds. Crisis on Stage: Tragedy and Comedy in Late Fifth-Century Athens. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012. Web. Trends in Classics 13. 8 Feb. 2013.

Book with Translator

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Trans. Translator's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.

Metz, Christian. Language and Cinema. Trans. Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton, 1974. Print.

Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler and Other Plays. Trans. Una Ellis-Fermor. London: Penguin, 1950. Print.
NB: This example contains a title, Hedda Gabler, within a title which is not italicised

Later edition of a Book

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. ed. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication

Example

Corrigan, Timothy. A Short Guide to Writing about Film. 8th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print.

An Introduction, Preface, Foreward, or Afterword

Begin with the name of the author of the part, then give the name of the part being cited, capitalised but neither italicised nor enclosed in quotation marks.

Author of foreword Lastname, Firstname. Foreword. Title of Book. By Author's Firstname Lastname(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Medium of Publication.

Example

Flora, Reis. Foreword. A Discography of Hindustani and Karnatic Music. Comp. Michael S. Kinnear. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1985. ix-x. Print.

Example of an edited book which includes chapters by other authors:

Kolker, Robert. Introduction. Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho: A Casebook. Ed. Robert Kolker. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 23-27. Web. 23 March 2012.

Book with a corporate author

Organisation name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication

Example

Australian Film Commission.  Documentary Production in Australia: A Collection of Key Data. Sydney: Australian Film Commission, 2008. Print.

Book with a corporate author prepared by an editor

Organisation name. Title of Book. Ed. Firstname Lastname. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication

Example

Australian Theatre Workshop. The Best of the One Act Plays. Ed. Mathew Clausen. Melbourne: Pearson, 2011. Print.

Essay in booklet accompanying a DVD

Vicari, Justin. “Essay.” All that Heaven Allows. Dir. Douglas Sirk. 1955. Madman Entertainment. 2008. Print.

Book with a single author (online - print equivalent available)

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Title of the database or Web site. Medium of Publication. Date of access.

Example

Spigel, Lynn. Make Room for TV: Television and the Family Ideal in Postwar America. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1992ACLS Humanities. Web. 18 June 2012.

In text citation

The description of the home transformed into a theatre (Spigel 99) ... or Spigel's description of the home transformed into a theatre (99) ...

Book with a single author (online - no print equivalent)

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Title of the database or Web site. Medium of Publication. Date of access.

Example

Ridout, Nicholas. Passionate Amateurs: Theatre, Communism and Love. Ann Arbor, MI:  U of Michigan P, 2013. OAPEN Library. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.

In text citation

Modern theatre's trend towards audience participation is discussed by Ridout (156).

Book with two authors (online)

Lastname, Firstname and Firstname Lastname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Title of the database or Web site. Medium of Publication. Date of access.

Railton, Diane and Paul Watson. Music Video and the Politics of Representation. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2011. IG Publishing eBook Library. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.

Chapters from an edited book (online)

Author of chapter Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Chapter." Title of Book. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page range of entry. Title of the database or Web site. Medium of Publication. Date of access.

Example

Douchet, Jean. “Hitch and His Audience.” Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho: A Casebook. Ed. Robert Kolker. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 62-73. EBL. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.

In text citation

In a recent collection of essays on the reputation of Psycho (Kolker 24) ...
or
In a recent collection of essays on Hitchcock, Kolker (24) ...

Kindle book

Levy, Emanuel. Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of American Independent Film. New York: New York UP, 1999. Kindle File.

Example

Ridout, Nicholas. Passionate Amateurs: Theatre, Communism and Love. Ann Arbor, MI:  U of Michigan P, 2013. OAPEN Library.

In text citation

Modern theatre's trend towards audience participation is discussed by Ridout (156).