Citing and referencing: Interviews/Speeches/Lectures

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers


Warning symbolThis guide is no longer being maintained as the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook has been replaced by the 8th edition. Only use the 7th edition under direction of your lecturer or tutor. Please click here to go to the MLA 8th library guide.

Tips from the MLA Handbook - Speech

For an oral presentation, give the speaker’s name; the title of the presentation (if known), in quotation marks; the meeting and the sponsoring organization (if applicable); the location; and the date. Use an appropriate descriptive label (Address, Lecture, Keynote speech, Reading), neither italicized nor enclosed in quotation marks, to indicate the form of delivery.

See the handbook p. 203 (5.7.11) for further examples.

Tips from the MLA Handbook - Interview

When citing interviews, there are two kinds: those that are published or broadcast and those that are conducted by the researcher. In both types of interview, record the name of the person interviewed first.

If the interview is part of a publication, recording, or program, enclose the title of the interview, if any, in quotation marks; if the interview was published independently, italicize the title. If the interview is untitled, use the descriptive label Interview, neither italicized nor enclosed in quotation marks. If the interviewer's name is known and is pertinent to your paper, it can also be added. Conclude with the appropriate bibliographic information and the medium of publication. e.g.

´╗┐Blanchett, Cate. "In Character with: Cate Blanchett." Notes on a Scandal. Dir. Richard Eyre. Fox Searchlight, 2006. DVD.

Breslin, Jimmy. Interview by Neal Conan. Talk of the Nation. Natl. Public Radio. WBUR, Boston, 26 Mar. 2002. Radio.

To cite an interview that you conducted, give the name of the person interviewed, the kind of interview (Personal interview, Telephone interview), and the date.

Pei, I. M. Personal interview. 22 July 1993

Reed, Ishmael. Telephone interview. 10 Dec. 2007

See the handbook p. 201-2 (5.7.7) for further examples.

Tips from the MLA Handbook - Interviews on the Web

Most works published online are nonperiodical, i.e. not released on a regular schedule. Websites sponsored by newspapers and magazines are generally nonperiodical. To cite an interview published online in a nonperiodical publication, you need to include the following components:

1. Lastname, Firstname of author/compiler/director/editor/narrator/performer/translator. If there is no author, begin the entry with the title.

2. Title of work (italicised if the work is independent; in roman type and quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work).

3. Title of overall website (italicised), if distinct from the title of work.

4. Version or edition used.

5. Publisher or sponsor of the site; if not available, use N.p.

6. Date of publication (day, month, year, as available); if unavailable, use n.d.

7. Medium of publication (Web).

8. Date of access (day, month, year).


Antin, David. Interview by Charles Bernstein. Dalkey Archive Press. Dalkey Archive P, n.d. Web. 21 Aug. 2015.

For more information on citing interviews from the Web, see the handbook p.184-7 (5.6.2).

Interviews, Speeches, Lectures etc.


Lastname, Firstname of Person interviewed. "Title of Interview (if any)." Interviewer's name if known. Title of Journal, Newspaper, TV/Radio Programme etc where interview published. Appropriate bibliographic details. Medium of Publication. 


Afford, Thelma. Interview by Hazel de Berg. Canberra: National Library of Australia. 6 Nov. 1981. Radio.

Kurosawa, Akira. “Making Films for All the People.” With Kyoko Hirano. Cineaste 14.4 (1986): 23-25. Print.

Speech, Reading, Address, Lecture, Keynote speech etc

Speaker's Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Presentation". Meeting and sponsoring organisation. Location. Date. Descriptive label to indicate form of delivery (e.g. Address; Lecture; Keynote speech; Reading).


Alter, Robert, and Marilynne Robinson. “The Psalms: A Reading and Conversation.” 92nd Street Y, New York. 17 Dec. 2007. Reading.

Atwood, Margaret. “Silencing the Scream.” Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA Annual Convention. Royal York Hotel, Toronto. 29 Dec. 1993. Address.

Fensham, Rachel. “'That primitive box space' - transculturalism and black modern dance." Transcultural. Transnational. Transformation. Australasian Association for Theatre, Drama and Performance Studies Conference. Monash University, Monash University, Clayton, Australia. 29 June 2011. Address.