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Citing and referencing: Websites

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

IEEE Introductory Contents

Mechanics and structure of IEEE style:

IEEE style contents: Examples

Publication examples:

IEEE Resources



Website page contents:

Web document authored by personal author and a professional organisation
Web document authored by a professional organisation
Professional website where the date of publication is not immediately apparent
You tube video

Check that you are using the standard abbreviations for websites


Citation Elements



The following are suggested examples based on information available from the IEEE transactions, journals, and letters: information for authors (pdf 438kb). Please contact the appropriate academic staff member to clarify any referencing issues you may have.

First name or intials. Surname. (year, month day). Title (edition) [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file




[1] R. Miller, Monash University Library (2012, Oct. 2). Use your smartphone to discover popular scholarly articles [Blog]. Available:

See the various citation elements shown below in Fig. 1.

Screen shot of a blog showing citation elements

Fig. 1. Citation elements of a blog

Web document authored by personal author and a professional organisation


[2] R. Crow and Open Society Institute (2004, Aug.). A Guide to Institutional Repository Software (3rd ed.) [Online]. Available:

Web document authored by a professional organisation

[3] IEEE Corporate Communications. (2010, Nov.). IEEE Visual Identity Guidelines: IEEE Master Brand Standards, Colour Palette, Typography, Imagery, Design System [Online]. Available:

The following example does not have an edition statement.  Where no author is given, the organisation responsible for the website where the document was housed  can be listed instead ie IEEE.  In this case the publication lists the contact details for queries regarding the publication as IEEE Corporate Communications.

Professional website where the date of publication is not immediately apparent


[4] A. Sekercioglu. (2004, Mar. 25). Ahmet's FAQs [Online]. Available:

Note: the reference above has the date sourced from "last modified date" which is shown at bottom  of the web page.  See Fig. 2.

Image showing citation elements of a webpage

Fig 2.  Citation elements of a web page: Ahmet's FAQs


Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University (2007, July 31). Dr Jean Armstrong: Brief Biography [Online]. Available:

In this case, it is not clear who the author is.  Since the page is about Professor Armstrong's research and contains her biography, it is likely to be authored by Professor Armstrong.  The website contains the Department of Electrical Computer Systems Engineering  in the URL, so if in doubt, the organisation that hosts the page is treated as the author.  Again the date of publication is taken from the most recent "last updated date" in the footer - see Fig. 3.  If there was no date, one would use the copyright date as the date of publication.

Image shows last activity date

Fig 3.  Clues relating to date of publication, shown in the footer of the website.

You tube video

A. Ooi, J.Evans and G.Buskes (2010, Oct. 25). Don't Stop Engineering [Video file]. Retrieved from

The screenshot below shows the various elements required for the reference, including the upload date for the date of publication.  If the youtube clip provides credits then these details can be used instead.

Image of Youtube showing the various citation elements such as URL, uploaded date, title etc