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Citing and referencing: Audio and Visual media

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Audio and visual media

Films and videorecordings of films

Format Producer, A. A. (Role in the production) & Writer, B. B. (Role in the production). (year of release). Title of film [Format]. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example

Scorsese, M. (Producer) & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Motion picture]. Hollywood, CA: Paramount Pictures.

 

DVDs and Videorecordings

Format Producer, A. A. (Role in the production). (year of release). Title of film [Format]. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example

American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Washington, DC: Author.
 

Note: The word ‘Author’ is used as the publisher when the author and publisher are the same.

 

Video file (eg Youtube video)

Format   Author, A. A. (year, date of posting). Title of video [Format]. Retrieved from 'website address'
Example

markapsolon. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nyGCbxD848
 

Note: Use the screen name markapsolon as it appears online.
If the user’s real name is available list it first, followed by the screen name in brackets
for example Smith, J. [markapsolon].

 

Webstreaming Video

Format Author, A. A. (year of posting). Title of video [Format]. Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from 'website address'
Example

Fukuyama, M. (2006). At the corner of me and myself: Voices of multiple social identities [Streaming video]. Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates. Retrieved from http://ctiv.alexanderstreet.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/View/535741

 

Television and radio programmes - single episode in a series

Format Author, A. A. (role in production). (year of release). Title of episode [Format]. In A. Author (role in production), Title of series. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example

Thomason, M., Rudd, P., & Fineri, W. (Writers/Directors). (2007). North West Passage [Television series episode]. In T. Wright (Supervising Producer), Captain Cook: Obsession and discovery. Melbourne, Vic: Film Australia.

 

Television and radio programmes - series or single program

Format Author, A. A. (role in production). (year of release). Title of program [Format]. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example

Leonard, D. (Producer), & de Pieri, S. (Presenter). (2009). A gondola on the Murray [Television series]. Melbourne, Vic: ABC Television.
 

Note: A single programme is called a Television broadcast. Specify the broadcast date for a single programme.

 

Podcasts

Format Author, A. A. (role in production). (year, date of posting). Title of podcast [Format]. Retrieved from 'website address'
Example

Seega, B. (Producer), & Swan, N. (Presenter). (2005, November 28). Adult ADHD [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt

Holland, A. (Producer), & Harris, H. (Director). (2008, June 12). Bog man [Video podcast]. Retrieved from ABC: http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2272392.htm

 

Images from the web

Format Artist, A. (year). Title of photograph [format]. Retrieved from URL
Example Monash University. (2011). CORE body comp [photograph]. Retrieved from https://imagelibrary.monash.edu

 

Musical Score - a single score

Format Author, A. A. (year of release). Title of score [Format]. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example

Stravinsky, I. (1975). Rite of spring [Score]. London, England: Hansen House.  

 

Musical Score - part of a collection or anthology

Format Author, A. A. (year of release). Title of score [Format]. In Title of collection (pages of score in collection). Place of publication: Publisher.
Example

Whitfield, N., & Strong, B. (1966). I heard it through the grapevine [Score]. In Motown anthology (pp. 98-104). Milkwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard.

 

Musical Score - with an editor

Format Author, A. A. (year of release). Title of score [Format]. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of collection (pages of score in collection). Place of publication: Publisher.
Example

Porter, C. (1953). It's all right with me [Score]. In W. L. Simon (Ed.), Treasury of great show tunes (pp. 104-110). Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest.

 

Music Recordings

Format Author, A. A. (year song was written). Song title [Recorded by if Artist is different from the writer]. On Title of CD [Format]. Place of publication: Publisher. (date of recording)
Example
Intext citation

"The Last of the Pioneers" (Williamson, 2003, track 5)

Note: Include the side, band or track number in intext citation

End text reference

Badnews, U. R. (1927). We only live twice [Recorded by P. Murray]. On Resurrection [CD]. Sandgate, Qld: Ibis Records. (1999)

Note: Include Artist in [ ] after song title if Artist is different from the Writer of the song

 

Map or Chart - electronic

Format

Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of the map or chart [Format]. Retrieved from 'web address'

Example

Idaho Department of Commerce. (2010). Idaho Rivers [Map], Retrieved from http://www.visitidaho.org/mapsimages/maps.aspx 

 

Map or Chart - singular sheets

Format Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of map or chart [Format]. (scale) Place of publication: Publisher.
Example

Metsker Maps. (1979). Metsker's map of Island county, Washington [Map]. (ca. 1:70,000.) Tacoma, WA: Metsker Maps.  

 

Map or Chart - book

Format Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of map or chart [Format]. scale. In B. B. Author, Title of Publication. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example

Magocsi, P. R. (2003). Population movements, 1944-1948 [Map]. 1:8 890 000. In P. R. Magocsi, Historical atlas of central Europe. (Rev. & ex. ed.) Seattle: University of Washington Press.

 

Works of Art (paintings, sculptures etc). In physical form or on the Internet.

Format Artist, A. A. (date of creation). Title of art [Format]. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example

Rodin, A. (1902). The thinker [Bronze and marble sculpture]. Paris, France: Musée Rodin.
 

Wyeth, A. (1948). Christina’s world [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.moma.org/explore/collection/index