For citations in brackets with two authors the ‘&’ symbol can be used. If the author citation forms part of
your sentence the word ‘and’ must be used, e.g. (Brown & Black, 2010) OR “Brown and Black (2010) indicate that…”
Placement of citations can be important depending on the emphasis you wish to apply.
If you wish to quote or paraphrase an author and want to emphasise the author, then your citation becomes 'author prominent'. The citation will look something like this:
If you wish to emphasise the information you have paraphrased or quoted from an author, then your citation becomes 'information prominent'. The citation will look something like this:
|Rule||Surname of author, no initials or suffixes such as Jr. The year of publication is also included|
..This was seen in an Australian study (Conger, 1979).
|Rule||Cite both surnames every time the reference occurs in the text|
...(Davidson & Harrington, 2002)
|Rule||Cite all surnames and publication year the first time, thereafter only the first surname followed by et al. Note: There is a full-stop (.) after al (see below).|
|Citation examples||The first time cited: ...(Brown, Soo, & Jones, 1990).
Brown, Soo, and Jones (1990)...
...(Brown et al., 1990).
Brown et al. (1990)...
|Rule||Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year from the first citation. Note: There is a full-stop (.) after al (see below). Include all authors, up to seven, in the reference list. Please see instruction for eight or more authors on the introductory page of this guide.|
|Citation examples||.... (Girad-Perregaux et al., 2003).
Girad-Perregaux et al. (2003)...
|Rule||Add the initials of the author's first or given name/s to their surname to distinguish them.|
|P. R. Smith (1923) to distinguish from S. Smith (1945) ...
(S. A. Brown & Jones, 1961) to distinguish from (W. O. Brown & Smith, 1985).
|Rule||If a multiple (3+) author citation abbreviated with et al. looks the same as another in text citation similarly shortened, add enough surnames to make a distinction, followed by a comma and et al.|
|Citation examples||...(Brown, Shimamura, et al., 1998) to distinguish from (Brown, Taylor, et al., 1998).|
|Rule||When cited together give the author's surname once followed by the years of each publication, which are separated by a comma.|
|Citation examples||... (Stairs, 1992, 1993).
Stairs (1992, 1993)...
|Rule||If there is more than one reference by an author in the same year,suffixes (a, b, c, etc.) are added to the year. Allocation of the suffixes is determined by the order of the references in the reference list. Suffixes are also included in the reference list, and these references are listed alphabetically by title. If cited together, list by suffix as shown below.|
|Citation examples||Stairs (1992b)... later in the text ... (Stairs, 1992a).
...(Stairs, 1992a, 1992b).
|Rule||Use Anonymous in place of the author's surname.|
|Citation examples||... (Anonymous, 1997)|
|Rule||Give the first few words of the title. If the title is from an article or a chapter use double quotation marks. If the title is from a periodical, book brochure or report then use italics.|
|Citation examples||...the worst election loss in the party's history ("This is the end," 1968).|
|Rule||If organization is recognized by abbreviation, cite the first time as follows:|
|Citation examples||... (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2005)
... (AIHW, 2005).
If abbreviation not widely known, give the name in full every time:
... (Australian Research Council, 1996)
|Rule||List the citations in alphabetical order and separate with semicolons|
|Citation examples||... (Burst, 1995; Nguyen, 1976; Turner & Hooch, 1982).|
|Rule||For a direct quote the page number(s) must be given. Indicate page, chapter, figure, table, etc. as specifically as possible. Use accepted abbreviations, i.e. p. for page, para. for paragraph..|
|Citation examples||As one writer put it "the darkest days were still ahead" (Weston, 1988, p. 45).
Weston (1988) argued that "the darkest days were still ahead" (p. 45).
This theory was put forward by Smith (2005, chap.7)
|Rule||Where page numbers are not provided use paragraph numbers.|
|Citation examples||...(Chang, 2001, para. 2)|
These include private letters, e-mail, and conversations. As personal communications are not accessible to others, they are not included in the reference list.
|Citation examples||... (R. Smith, personal communication, January 28, 2002).
R. Smith (personal communication, January 28, 2002)...
|Rule||In the reference list you ONLY include the details of the source you actually read - not the original source. In the example below, the original source would be Farrow (1968), which you saw cited in a paper by Ward and Decan (1988).|
|Citation examples||... (Farrow, 1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988).
Farrow (1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988) ...
Ward and Decan (1988) cited Farrow (1968) as finding...
The way you cite legislation or legal cases depends on whether you read the actual legislation or read about it in another source. If it is the latter, the legislation/case should be treated as a secondary source.
|Rule - Legislation||
The title of the leglslation and the year (jurisdiction). Note: include the jurisdiction the first time the act is cited. The jurisdiction can be dropped with subsequent citations
The Medical Treatment Act 1988 (Vic) states......
by virtue of s. 25.1 of the Aged Care Act 1997 (Cth).....
..."A restrictive intervention may only be used on a person....." (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic), s. 105)
as a secondary source
....Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 (Vic) (as cited in Creighton & Rozen, 2007)
|Rule - Cases||
The title of the case (year). Note: Include the year with the first citation. The year can be dropped in subsequent citations.
According to the case of Rogers v Whitaker (1992).....
as a secondary source
.....Chappel v Hart (1988) (as cited in Forrester & Griffiths, 2010)