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Citing and referencing: Images / Figures

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Rules for images

1. If referring to the actual artwork (sculpture, photograph, painting, etc.) and you are not including the image in your document, you only need to provide a detailed in-text citation or footnote. See "Artworks" box for more information. 

2. If you have sourced the image from the web or a published source:

a) Notes Bibliography style: you need to include the publication information or web address in place of the institutional name or location in the footnote. See "Images from the web" or "Images from books or other published sources" for more information. 

b) Author Date style: you need to include a brief in-text citation AND a full bibliography entry. See "Images from the web" or "Images from books or other published sources" for more information. 

3. If you are including a copy of the image in your document, you need to also include a figure caption. See "Positioning images in your text" box for more information.

Images from the web

 

If you found the image online you will need to include in your footnote:

  • artist
  • title of work
  • date of creation of work
  • type of materials (optional)
  • dimensions of the work (optional)
  • URL
  • access date

Examples:

Footnotes

1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, oil on canvas, 250.3 x 357.0 cm, accessed 24 May, 2012, http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/4409.

2. Max Dupain, The Sunbaker, 1937, gelatin silver photograph, 38.0 x 43.1 cm, accessed 24 May, 2012, http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/7621.

If you found the image online you need to include a brief parenthetical (in text) citation and a bibliography entry that includes:

  • artist
  • title of work
  • date of creation of work
  • type of materials (optional)
  • dimensions of the work (optional)
  • URL
  • access date

Examples:

Parenthetical (In Text)

(Tiepolo 1743-44)

(Dupain 1937)

Bibliography

Tiepolo, Giambattista. 1743-44. The Banquet of Cleopatra. Oil on canvas. Accessed 24 May, 2012. http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/4409.

Dupain, Max. 1937. The Sunbaker. Photograph. Accessed 24 May, 2012. http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/7621.

Images from books or other published sources

 

If you found the image in a book or other published source you will need to include in the footnote:

  • artist
  • title of work
  • date of creation of work
  • type of materials (optional)
  • dimensions of the work (optional)
  • author of book
  • title of book
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • date of publication
  • page
  • figure or plate number of the reproduction (optional)

Examples:

Footnotes

1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, in Ted Gott and Laurie Benson, Painting and Sculpture before 1800 in the International Collections of the National Gallery of Victoria (Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2003), 102.

2. Max Dupain, "The Sunbaker", 1937, in Isobel Crombie, Body Culture: Max Dupain, Photography and Australian Culture 1919-1939 (Images Publishing Group in association with National Gallery of Victoria, 2004), 150, 17.1.

If you found the image in a book or other published source you will need to include an in text citation as well as a bibliography entry that includes:

  • artist
  • title of work
  • date of creation of work
  • type of materials (optional)
  • dimensions of the work (optional)
  • author of book
  • title of book
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • date of publication
  • page
  • figure or plate number of the reproduction (optional)

Examples:

Parenthetical (In Text)

(Georgia O'Keeffe, The Cliff Chimneys, 1938, in Lynes, Poling-Kempes, and Turner 2004, 25)

Bibliography

Lynes, Barbara Buhler, Lesley Poling-Kempes, and Frederick W. Turner. 2004. Gerigie O'Keeffe and New Mexico: A sense of place. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Artworks

 

If you are referring to the actual artwork and you are not including the image in your document, you only need to provide a detailed footnote.

Include the following information:

  • artist
  • title of the work
  • date of creation of work
  • type of materials (optional)
  • dimensions of the work (optional)
  • name of the institution that houses the work, including location

Example:

Footnote
   1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, oil on canvas, 250.3 x 357.0 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

If you are referring to the actual artwork and you are not including the image in your document, you only need to provide a detailed in text citation. 

Include the following information:

  • artist
  • title of the work
  • date of creation of work
  • type of materials (optional)
  • dimensions of the work (optional)
  • name of the institution that houses the work, including location

Example:

Parenthetical (In Text)
   (Georgia O'Keeffe, The Cliff Chimneys, 1938, Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin)

Positioning images in your text

 

  • Images inserted in your document are called figures.
  • Every figure should have a number and caption.
  • The caption should provide a concise explanation of the figure. 
  • A figure should follow as closely as possible the paragraph in which it is mentioned.
  • When you refer to a figure in the text, specify the figure number ("in figure 10") rather than its location ("below") and also provide a footnote.

Example:

Body text: In his painting The Banquet of Cleopatra (see figure 10), Tiepolo portrays a famous contest where Cleopatra wins a wager with Mark Antony by dissolving a pearl earring in a glass of vinegar and drinking it.1

 cleopatra-ngv-scaled









 

Figure 10. The Banquet of Cleopatra by Giambattista Tiepolo depicts a contest between Cleopatra and Mark Antony.

 

Footnote:

1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, oil on canvas, 250.3 x 357.0 cm, accessed 24 May, 2012, http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/4409.

  • Images inserted in your document are called figures.
  • Every figure should have a number and caption.
  • The caption should provide a concise explanation of the figure.
  • A figure should follow as closely as possible the paragraph in which it is mentioned.
  • When you refer to a figure in the text, specify the figure number ("in figure 10") rather than its location ("below") and also provide an in text citation.

Example:

Body text: In his painting The Banquet of Cleopatra (see figure 10), the artist portrays a famous contest where Cleopatra wins a wager with Mark Antony by dissolving a pearl earring in a glass of vinegar and drinking it (Tiepolo, 1743-44).

cleopatra-ngv-scaled









 

 

Figure 10. The Banquet of Cleopatra by Giambattista Tiepolo depicts a contest between Cleopatra and Mark Antony.

 

Bibliography

Tiepolo, Giambattista. 1743-44. The Banquet of Cleopatra. Oil on canvas. Accessed 24 May, 2012. http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/4409.