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Citing and referencing: Images / Figures

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Art works - paintings

 

  • Cite works of art in notes only (not in your bibliography).
  • Italicize the titles of paintings and sculptures.

Include the following information:

  • name of the artist
  • title of the work
  • date it was created
  • type of materials (optional)
  • dimensions of the work (optional)
  • name of the institution that houses the work, including location (for artworks and museum exhibits)

Example:

cleopatra-ngv-scaled
Figure 1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44

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   1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, oil on canvas, 250.3 x 357.0 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

  • Cite paintings in parenthetical citations only (not in your bibliography).
  • Italicize the titles of paintings and sculptures.

Include the following information:

  • name of the artist
  • title of the work
  • date it was created
  • name of the institution that houses the work, including location (for artworks and museum exhibits)

Example:

cleopatra-ngv-scaled
Figure 1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44

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   (Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne)

Art works - photographs

  • Cite works of art in notes only (not in your bibliography).
  • Enclose titles of photographs in quotation marks and do not italicize.

Include the following information:

  • name of the photographer
  • title of the work
  • date it was created
  • type of materials (optional)
  • dimensions of the work (optional)
  • name of the institution that houses the work, including location (for artworks and museum exhibits)

Example:

sunbaker-ngv-scaled
Figure 2. Max Dupain, "The Sunbaker", 1937 (printed c. 1975)


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2. Max Dupain, "The Sunbaker", 1937 (printed c. 1975), gelatin silver photograph, 38.0 x 43.1 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

  • Cite works of art in parenthetical citations only (not in your bibliography).
  • Enclose titles of photographs in quotation marks and do not italicize.

Include the following information:

  • name of the photographer
  • title of the work
  • date it was created
  • name of the institution that houses the work, including location (for artworks and museum exhibits)

Example:

sunbaker-ngv-scaled
Figure 2. Max Dupain, "The Sunbaker", 1937 (printed c. 1975)


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(Max Dupain, "The Sunbaker", 1937,  National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne)

Images from books

 

If you found the image in a book, you will need to identify the source:

  • author
  • title
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • date
  • page
  • figure or plate number of the reproduction

Examples:

1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, in Ted Gott and Laurie Benson, Painting and Sculpture before 1800 in the International Collections of the National Gallery of Victoria (Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2003), 102.

2. Max Dupain, "The Sunbaker", 1937 (printed c. 1975), in Isobel Crombie, Body Culture: Max Dupain, Photography and Australian Culture 1919-1939 (Images Publishing Group in association with National Gallery of Victoria, 2004), 150, 17.1.

If you found the image in a book, you will need to identify the source (Include this in your reference list)

  • author
  • title
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • date
  • page
  • figure or plate number of the reproduction

Examples:

Reference List

Lynes, Barbara Buhler, Lesley Poling-Kempes, and Frederick W. Turner. 2004. Gerigie O'Keeffe and New Mexico: A sense of place. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


Parenthetical (In Text)

(Georgia O'Keeffe, The Cliff Chimneys, 1938, in Lynes, Poling-Kempes, and Turner 2004, 25)

Images on the web

If you found the image online you will need as well:

  • URL
  • access date
  • image ID number (if available)
  • possibly copyright permission (required if you were publishing the image on the web)

Examples:

1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, oil on canvas, 250.3 x 357.0 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, accessed 24 May, 2012, http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/4409.

2. Max Dupain, "The Sunbaker", 1937 (printed c. 1975), gelatin silver photograph, 38.0 x 43.1 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, accessed 24 May, 2012, http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/7621.

If you found the image online include this in your reference list with the following:

  • URL
  • access date
  • image ID number (if available)
  • possibly copyright permission (required if you were publishing the image on the web)

Examples:

Reference List

1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, accessed 24 May, 2012, http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/4409.

2. Max Dupain, "The Sunbaker", 1937, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, accessed 24 May, 2012, http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/col/work/7621.

 

Parenthetical (In Text)

      1. (Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne)

      2. (Max Dupain, "The Sunbaker", 1937, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne)

Positioning images in your text

 

  • Images inserted in your academic paper are called figures.
  • Every figure should have a number and caption.
  • Figure captions are normally presented in a smaller typeface than the rest of the text.
  • A figure should follow as closely as possible the paragraph in which it is mentioned.
  • When you refer to a figure in the text, specify the figure number ("in figure 10") rather than its location ("below").
  • Do not capitalize the word figure in text references to figures and do not abbreviate it as fig. except in parathentical references (see fig. 10).
  • In addition to the caption, you would normally cite the image in a footnote (indicated in the text by a superscript number placed at the end of the sentence and after the full stop), in which you refer to the image.

Example: In his painting The Banquet of Cleopatra (see fig. 10), Tiepolo portrays a famous contest where Cleopatra wins a wager with Mark Antony by dissolving a pearl earring in a glass of vinegar and drinking it.1

 cleopatra-ngv-scaled










Figure 10. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44

----------------------------------------------------

1. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, oil on canvas, 250.3 x 357.0 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

  • Images inserted in your academic paper are called figures.
  • Every figure should have a number and caption.
  • Figure captions are normally presented in a smaller typeface than the rest of the text.
  • A figure should follow as closely as possible the paragraph in which it is mentioned.
  • When you refer to a figure in the text, specify the figure number ("in figure 10") rather than its location ("below").
  • Do not capitalize the word figure in text references to figures and do not abbreviate it as fig. except in parathentical references (see fig. 10).

Example: In his painting The Banquet of Cleopatra (see fig. 10), Tiepolo portrays a famous contest where Cleopatra wins a wager with Mark Antony by dissolving a pearl earring in a glass of vinegar and drinking it.1

 cleopatra-ngv-scaled

 Figure 10. Giambattista Tiepolo, The Banquet of Cleopatra, 1743-44, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Images from ARTstor

 

irises-van-gogh

Figure 1. Vincent van Gogh, Irises, 1890, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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1. Vincent van Gogh, Irises, 1890, oil on canvas, 73.7 x 92.1 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Adele R. Levy, 1958 (58.187) Photographed by Malcolm Varon. ARTstor Image ID MMA_IAP_1039651317.

Treat an image taken from Artstor similar to an image retrieved online. Include this in your reference list. Instead of a URL include the ARtstor image ID. An access date is not required as images from Artstor are static.

irises-van-gogh

Figure 1. Vincent van Gogh, Irises, 1890, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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Reference List

Vincent van Gogh, Irises, 1890, Metropolitan Museum of Art,  Photographed by Malcolm Varon. ARTstor Image ID MMA_IAP_1039651317.

Parenthetical (In Text)

     (Vincent van Gogh, Irises, 1890, Metropolitan Museum of Art)