Citing and referencing: Patents

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IEEE Introductory Contents

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Print patents

Citation Elements

Author(s) First name or initials. Surname, “Title of patent,” U.S. Patent [Patent authority] x xxx xxx [patent number], Abbrev. Month, day, year.

See page 37 of IEEE Editorial Style Manual

[1] J. Armstrong, "Methods and apparatus for generation and transmission of optical signals," U.S. Patent 7 796 898, Sept., 14, 2010.
[1] J. P. Wilkinson, "Nonlinear resonant circuit devices," U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.
[2] T. Mei and T. Yang, "Circuit and method for average –current regulation of light-emitting diodes," U.S. Patent 7 898 187 B1, 2011, Mar. 1, 2012.
[3] S. P. Voinigescu et al., "Direct m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) operating in saturated power mode, " U.S. Patent Appl. 20110013726A1, Jan. 20, 2011.


Online patents

Citation Elements

Name of the invention, by inventor's name. (year, month day). Patent Number [Type of     medium]. Available: site/path/file

See page 40 of IEEE Editorial Style Manual

[1] Musical toothbrush with adjustable neck and mirror, by L.M.R. Brooks. (1992, May 19). Patent D 326 189 [Online]. Available: NEXIS Library: LEXPAT File: DESIGN