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Citing and referencing: Government sources/industry reports

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Harvard Contents

Government sources/industry reports

Hansard - Hansard is the name given to transcripts of Australian parliamentary proceedings and should be referenced as if in print even if viewed electronically

Reference list Commonwealth of Australia 2011, Parliamentary debates: House of Representatives: official Hansard, vol 18, pp. 13742-13891.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Commonwealth of Australia (2011, p. 13751) records the first and second readings of the Corporations Amendment (Further Future of Financial Advice Measures) Bill 2011.
*pinpoint the specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Need for performance reporting, cultural change and parliamentary scrutiny was asserted by the member for Lyne, Oakshott (Commonwealth of Australia 2011, p. 13773).
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Quoting - Author prominent It is asserted by Combet in Commonwealth of Australia (2011, p. 13883) that IPCC reports are among 'the most scrutinised documents in the history of science'.
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Quoting - Information prominent 'In the period from 1 August 2010 to 18 November this year, Australian forces have apprehended 1,074 detainees', according to the Minister for Defence (Commonwealth of Australia 2011, p. 13744).
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Australian Bureau of Statistics, print

Reference list Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, 2007-2008 Housing occupancy and costs Australia, cat. no. 4130.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.
*for print ABS include catalogue number after title

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009) reports on the status of housing in Australia in 2007-2008.
*if you have only one in-text citation to Australian Bureau of Statistics in your work, you must use the full name (no initials or abbreviations)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A statistical comparison of different household types is provided (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS] 2009).
*if you have two or more in-text citations to a source such as ABS in your work include the initials in square brackets inside the round brackets for the first citation. For subsequent in-text citations use only the initials
Quoting - Author prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
The ABS (2009, p. 4) states that there were '8.1 million households living in private dwellings in Australia' in the period surveyed.
*pinpoint the quote
*initials ABS for second and subsequent citations ONLY
Quoting - Information prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
The following criterion is among those used to determine overcrowding 'single household members 18 and over should have a separate bedroom, as should parents or couples' (ABS 2009, p. 84).
*pinpoint the quote
*initials ABS for second and subsequent citations ONLY 

 

Australian Bureau of Statistics, online

Reference list Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2004, 5362.0.55.001 A guide to Australian balance of payments and international investment position statistics, viewed 24 November 2011, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/5362.0.55.001
*initials in round brackets as above only if the source is cited more than once in-text
*for electronic ABS, catalogue number is part of the title

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (2004, para. 3) defines non-resident entities as including businesses located abroad.
*pinpoint the specific information
*if you have only one in-text citation to a source such as ABS in your work, you must use the full author name (no initials or abbreviations)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent A number of technical terms relating to international finance are defined (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS] 2004).
*if you have two or more in-text citations to a source such as ABS in your work include the initials in square brackets inside the round brackets for the first citation. For subsequent in-text citations use only the initials
Quoting - Author prominent In subsequent in-text citations: The ABS (2004, p. 1 of 4) defines residents as entities 'which have a closer association with the territory of Australia than with any other territory'.
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*initials ABS for second and subsequent citations ONLY
Quoting - Information prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
'Australian balance of payments and international investment position statistics are expressed in Australian dollars' according to the ABS (2004, p. 3 of 4).
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*initials ABS for second and subsequent citations ONLY 

 

Government documents, one or more authors, print

Reference list Goodrum, D, Hackling, M & Rennie, L 2000, The status and quality of teaching and learning of science in Australian schools, report, Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Canberra.
*insert report, research report, discussion paper, working paper, occasional paper, fact sheet , white/green paper, media release as necessary (e.g. if not in title)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Goodrum, Hackling and Rennie (2000) identified a range of circumstances inhibiting science teaching.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Resourcing was found to be a major problem in science teaching (Goodrum, Hackling & Rennie 2000).
Quoting - Author prominent Among the recommendations of Goodrum, Hackling and Rennie (2000, p. x) is 'that incentives be provided to attract larger numbers of quality students into science teaching'.
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Quoting - Information prominent Factors including 'student focus versus content focus, resources, time and the quality of teachers' were found to limit science teaching (Goodrum, Hackling & Rennie 2000, p. 87).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Government documents, one or more authors, online

Reference list Cashmore, J, Parkinson, P, Weston, R, Patulny, R, Redmond, G, Qu, L, Baxter, J, Rajkovic, M, Sitek, T & Katz, I 2010, Shared care parenting arrangements since the 2006 Family Law reforms: report to the Australian Government Attorney-General’s Department, viewed 17 January 2012, http://www.sprc.unsw.edu.au/media/File/AG_Shared_Care.PDF
*insert report, research report, discussion paper, working paper, occasional paper, fact sheet , white/green paper, media release as necessary (e.g. if not in title)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Cashmore et al. (2010) investigated shared care of Australian children.
*use et al. for a source with four or more authors (note stop only after ‘al.’, not after ‘et’)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Shared care is depicted as atypical throughout a recent report (Cashmore et al. 2010).
*use et al.
Quoting - Author prominent Cashmore et al. (2010, p. 9) provide statistics showing that 'shared care arrangements are less likely to last over a substantial time period.'
*pinpoint the quote
*use et al.
Quoting - Information prominent Of 136 participants, 'just under half the children (45%) indicated that they were "neither happy nor sad" about their living arrangements; a third were unhappy or very unhappy, and about one in five (22%) were happy or very happy with them' (Cashmore et al 2010, p. 116).
*pinpoint the quote
*use et al.
*use double quotation marks for a quote within a quote   

 

Government documents, department as author, print

Reference list Parliament of Victoria, Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee 2002, Inquiry into the inhalation of volatile substances: final report, Government Printer, Melbourne.
*insert report, research report, discussion paper, working paper, occasional paper, fact sheet , white/green paper, media release as necessary (e.g. if not in title)

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Parliament of Victoria, Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee (2002, p. 128) found that the highest incidence of inhaling drugs was among adolescents.
*pinpoint the specific information
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Drug abuse is part of wider social and health issues (Parliament of Victoria, Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee 2002).
Quoting - Author prominent The Parliament of Victoria, Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee (2002, p. 6) defines Volatile Substance Abuse as 'deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to change a mental state'.
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Quoting - Information prominent For young people, boredom can lead to 'risk taking behaviour' (Parliament of Victoria, Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee 2002, p. 51).
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Government documents, department as author, online

Reference list Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council 2011, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health performance framework report 2010, viewed 10 November 2011, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/health-oatsih-pubs-framereport-toc/$FILE/HPF%20Report%202010august2011.pdf

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Australian Health Ministers Advisory Council (2011, p. 14) reported that since the early 1990s efforts to improve the birth weight of indigenous babies has had limited impact.
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Paraphrasing - Information prominent Efforts to improve the birth weight of indigenous babies has had limited impact since the early 1990s (Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council 2011, p. 14).
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Quoting - Author prominent The Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council (2011, p. 14) reports that 'in very remote areas, babies born to Indigenous mothers were almost three times as likely to be of low birthweight'.
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Quoting - Information prominent Indigenous hospitalisation rates were '1.4 times as high as non indigenous rates' (Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council 2011, p. 14).
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Government white paper, online

Reference list Australian Government Department of Defence (ADF) 2009, Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific century: force 2030: Defence Force white paper, viewed 30 November 2011, http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/docs/defence_white_paper_2009.pdf
*initials in round brackets as above only if the source is cited more than once in-text

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Australian Government Department of Defence (2009, p. 22) expressed the view that war between major powers remains a potential threat.
*pinpoint the specific information
*if you have only one in-text citation to a source in your work, you must use the full author name (no initials or abbreviations)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The Australian capacity for defence was internally reviewed (Australian Government Department of Defence [ADF] 2009).
*if you have two or more in-text citations to a source such as ADF in your work include the initials in square brackets inside the round brackets for the first citation. For subsequent in-text citations use only the initials
Quoting - Author prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
The ADF (2009, p. 104) identifies a need for 'new analytic tools and methods'.
*pinpoint the quote
*initials ADF for second and subsequent citations ONLY
Quoting - Information prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
The ADF may be 'increasingly called upon to undertake regional stabilisation, humanitarian and disaster relief operations' (Australian Government Department of Defence 2009, p. 18).
*pinpoint the quote
*initials ADF for second and subsequent citations ONLY

 

 Government green paper, online

Reference list The State of Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment 2008, Land and biodiversity at a time of climate change, green paper, viewed 30 November 2011, http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/default-import-location/land-and-biodiversity-at-a-time-of-climate-change-the-green-paper#gp
*insert green paper as it is not in the title

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment (2008) green paper surveys potential environmental strategies.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The argument that ecosystems must contribute economic and social benefits is advanced (Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment 2008, p. 32).
*pinpoint the specific information
Quoting - Author prominent The State of Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment 2008, p. 62) acknowledges addressing potential environmental damage 'may not be straightforward'.
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Quoting - Information prominent It is recognised that 'significant gaps remain in Victoria's natural resource management knowledge base' (Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment 2008, p. 32).
*pinpoint the quote

 

Government fact sheet, print 
*fact sheets are not acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list Queensland Government, Department of Education and Training (DET) 2009, Literacy and numeracy fact sheet: supporting your child, The State of Queensland, Brisbane.
*initials in round brackets only if the source is cited more than once in-text

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Queensland Government, Department of Education and Training (2009) provides basic information for parents on supporting children's learning.
*if you have only one in-text citation to the particular government department in your work, you must use the full name (no initials or abbreviations)
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Among parental education information are resources such as a basic fact sheet on literacy and numeracy (Queensland Government, Department of Education and Training [DET] 2009).
*first of two or more citations include initials in square brackets within citation
Quoting - Author prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
DET (2009, p. 1) defines literacy as 'the ability to read, view, write, design, speak and listen in a way that allows us to communicate effectively and to make sense of the world'.
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*initials ONLY for second and/or subsequent citations
Quoting - Information prominent In subsequent in-text citations:
'Numeracy enables you to develop logical thinking and reasoning strategies in your daily life' according to DET (2009, p. 2).
*pinpoint the quote
*initials ONLY for second and/or subsequent citations 

 

Government fact sheet, online
*fact sheets are not acceptable academic sources unless as objects of research

Reference list Australian Government 2010, Strengthening immunisation for children, fact sheet, viewed 17 January 2012, http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/sa/families/payments/Pages/strengthening_immunisation.aspx

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

The Australian Government's (2010) new measures stipulate immunisation as a prerequisite for child support.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The Commonwealth government aims to increase immunisation rates (Australian Government 2010).
Quoting - Author prominent The Australian Government (2010, p. 1) claims that 'immunisation is the safest and most effective way of giving protection against a disease'.
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent Parents' failure to immunise a child has been negatively represented as 'risking their child's health and the health of other children' (Australian Government 2010, p. 1).
*pinpoint the quote 

 

Standards, online

Reference list Standards Australia International 2000, AS 1235-2000 Road vehicles: roof load carriers: roof bars, 5th edn, standards, viewed 3 February 2012, http://infostore.saiglobal.com/store/Details.aspx?ProductID=218577

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Standards Australia (2000) specifies the materials and strength requirements for roof bars.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent The minimum safety requirements for roof bars are detailed (Standards Australia 2000).
Quoting - Author prominent Standards Australia (2000, p. 3) has determined that materials resist 'outside temperatures between -200 C and +600 C'.
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Quoting - Information prominent The 'rear roof bar shall remain fixed to the roof under a force of 0,5Fa' (Standards Australia International 2000, p. 3).
*pinpoint the quote  

 

Patents, online

Reference list Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation 2009, Aqueous coating solutions and method for the treatment of a metal surface, Australian sealed patent number 2009202792, filed 10 July 2009, viewed 2 February 2012, http://www.ipmonitor.com.au/patents/case/2009202792.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Not applicable *for information about a particular patent, you may need to contact the author or agent, or search for publications detailing the invention
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Not applicable
Quoting - Author prominent Not applicable
Quoting - Information prominent Not applicable  

 

Industry report - author

Reference list Burgio-Ficca, C 2013, IBISWorld Industry Report G4241. Sport and camping equipment retailing in Australia, IBISWorld, viewed 26 August 2013.

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

Burgio-Ficca (2013) includes guns and firearms in the broad category of sports and camping equipment.
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Demand for summer sports equipment, such as tennis and cricket, increases significantly during the summer months in Australia (Burgio-Ficca 2013).
Quoting - Author prominent Burgio-Ficca is optimistic about consumer sentiment, expecting an increase during 2013-14 as 'lower levels of unemployment and increased job security boost confidence levels amongst consumers' (2013, p. 5).
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Quoting - Information prominent 'Demand for tennis and cricket equipment increases during the summer months in Australia as these are traditionally viewed as summer sports' (Burgio-Ficca 2013, p.14).
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Industry report - no author

Reference list

'DATAMONITOR: Drinks MarketWatch' 2011, Marketwatch: Drinks, 10, 9, pp. 1-28, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 August 2013.

*use title as author

Paraphrasing - Author prominent

DATAMONITOR's Drinks MediaWatch report includes a spotlight segment on Carlsberg (2011).
Paraphrasing - Information prominent Wine is perceived as a healthier drink than beer in North America and Europe ('DATAMONITOR: Drinks MarketWatch' 2011, p. 26)
*use title as author
Quoting - Author prominent According to DATAMONITOR's Drinks MarketWatch report (2011 p. 22), 'Carlsberg is the fourth largest brewer in the world and is particularly strong in Northern and Western Europe.'
*pinpoint the quote
Quoting - Information prominent 'The company [Carlsberg] markets and sells more than 500 different beer brands around the world' ('DATAMONITOR: Drinks MarketWatch' 2011, p. 22).
*pinpoint the quote

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