Citing and referencing: Television/Radio Broadcast

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers


Warning symbolThis guide is no longer being maintained as the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook has been replaced by the 8th edition. Only use the 7th edition under direction of your lecturer or tutor. Please click here to go to the MLA 8th library guide.

Tips from the MLA Handbook

  • An entry for a film usually begins with the title, italicized, and includes the director, the distributor, the year of release, and the medium consulted. You may include other data that seem pertinent—such as the names of the screenwriter, performers, and producer—between the title and the distributor.
  • In general, information relating to a particular episode follows the title of the episode while information pertinent to a series follows the title of the series.
  • If the transcript of a program is cited, list the medium of publication and add the description Transcript at the end of the entry.

Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Mod. Lang. Assn., 2009, Print.

MLA Handbook Quick Ref

See the MLA handbook p 193-94 (5.7.1) for the order of information for a live television broadcast.

  • Title of the episode or segment, if appropriate (in quotation marks)
  • Title of the program or series (italicized)
  • Name of the network (if any)
  • Call letters and city of the local station (if any)
  • Broadcast date
  • Medium of reception (e.g., Radio, Television)
  • Supplementary information

Cite a DVD as you would a film. Include the original release date when it is relevant.

See the MLA handbook p 189 (5.6.2 d.) for the order of information for a digitised television broadcast online.

  • Title of the work (italicized if the work is independent; in quotation marks for an episode or segment)
  • Title of the program or series (italicized)
  • Name of the network (if any)
  • Call letters and city of the local station (if any)
  • Broadcast date (day month, and year, as available); if nothing is available, use n.d.
  • Title of database or Web site (italicized)
  • Medium of reception (Web)
  • Date of access (day, month, and year)

For in text citations, refer to p 233 (6.4.4).
Italicize the names of television series and use quotation makes for individual episodes of a television series.

Modern Language Association of America.MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Mod. Lang. Assn., 2009, Print.

Television or Radio Broadcast

Episode of a television show on DVD

"Title of Episode." Title of Series. Writer's Name. Director's Name. Distributor's Name, Year of Release. Medium of Publication.


"Episode One." Downton Abbey. Writ. Julian Fellowes. Dir. Brian Percival. Carnival Films. 2010. DVD.

"The Trip." Seinfeld. Dir. Tom Cherones. NVC, 12 Aug. 1992. Google Video. Web. 15 Aug. 2007. DVD.

In text citation

The Seinfeld episode "The Trip" is one of the few episodes that takes place outside New York city.

Full television series (whole season) on DVD

Title of Series. Writer's Name. Director's Name. Original broadcast date. Distributor's Name, Date of DVD release. Medium of Publication.


Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, Writ. Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen. Dir. Kevin Bright. NBC. 10 Feb. 2000. Warner Brothers, 2004. DVD.

In text citation

 The characters in Friends have interesting pasts, families, ethnicities and contexts that provide opportunities for deeper understanding of character.

Live television or radio broadcast 

"Title of episode or segment." Title of Program or Series. Name of the network (if any). Call letters and city of the local station (if any), Broadcast date. Medium of Reception (e.g. Radio or Television). Supplementary information.


Marock. SBS. Dir. Laila Marrakchi. Perf. Morjana Alaoui, Mathieu Boujenah and Assas Bouab. SBS. Melbourne, 18 Dec. 2012. Television.

"Summer Movies with Julia Rigg." Breakfast. National Radio. ABC, 18 Jan. 2012. Radio.

In text citation

Even Breakfast indicated that Gary Oldman was a surprising choice for the role of Smiley in "Summer Movies with Julia Rigg."

Television news broadcast (Online video database)


“Ecuador to rule on Assange asylum bid.” Narr. Emma Alberici. Lateline. ABC 1 Melbourne, 21 June 2012. TVNews. Web. 2 August 2013.

“This government has been dishonest, incompetent and should go but what exactly is the alternative offered by the Liberal? ” The Bolt Report. Ten Network, 26 May 2013. TVNews. Web. 2 Aug. 2013.

In text citation

Emma Alberici from ABC 1's Lateline reported on the situation at the Ecuadorean embassy in London.

Peter Reith, former Defence Minister, and Cassandra Wilkinson, former Labor Adviser, were interviwed on The Bolt Report and discussed whether the Liberals are just 'Labor-Lite'