Citing and referencing: Websites and social media

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Websites and social media

Before using this guide check with your faculty, school or department for their specific referencing guidelines


Follow these examples closely for all layout, punctuation, spacing and capitalisation

Author names should be listed in the order they appear on the site.

Reproduce the title of a homepage as closely as possible to the wording on the screen.

Place the word Internet in square brackets following the title (and content type if present).

Place of publication is defined as the city where the homepage is published. If place, publisher, date unknown use [place unknown], for example.

Publisher is defined as the individual or organisation issuing the homepage.

Use the date of publication as the date the page was first published on the internet, always give the year.

Date of update / revision - always give the year and include the date / month, if provided, after the year.

Include the date that you saw the page on the internet.

Begin with the phrase "Available from". Insert the URL in its entirety. End with a period only if the URL ends with a slash, otherwise end with no punctuation.

For a more detailed guide to referencing website information please consult:

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Oct 21; cited 2019 Jan 8]. Available from:

Web site / homepage

Format Author / organisation's name. Title of the page [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date or year of publication [updated YYYY Mon DD; cited YYYY Mon DD]. Available from: URL

Diabetes Australia. Diabetes globally [Internet]. Canberra ACT: Diabetes Australia; 2012 [updated 2012 Jun 15; cited 2019 Nov 5]. Available from:​Understanding-Diabetes/Diabetes-Globally/.

Web site / part of a homepage

Format Title of the homepage [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date or year of publication. Title of specific page / part; Date of publication of part [Date cited of part YYY Mon DD]; [location or pagination of part]. Available from: URL
Example Australian Medical Association [Internet]. Barton ACT: AMA; c1995-2012 . Junior doctors and medical students call for urgent solution to medical training crisis; 2012 Oct 22 [cited 2019 Nov 5]; [about 3 screens]. Available from:​-and-medical-students-call-urgent-solution-medical-training-crisis

Image from the Web

If the title of the image is not shown construct a title that describes the image shown. Use enough words to make the constructed title meaningful. Place the constructed title in square brackets.

Format Author or organisation. Title [Image on internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [date cited YYY Mon DD]. Available from: URL
Example Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Shingles on face. [Image on internet]. 2011 [updated 2011 Jan 10; cited 2019 Nov 6]. Available from:​photos.html

Web blog post


Author AA. Title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Year of publication - [cited YYYY Mon DD]. Available from: URL

For a contribution to a blog:

Author of contribution. Title of contribution. Date of publication of contribution [cited YYYY Mon DD]. In: Author or editor of blog. Title of blog [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication - [extent of contribution]. Available from: URL


Rural Health Workforce Australia. Rural health: a life changing difference [Internet]. Canberra: RHWA [unknown date] [cited 2019 Nov 6]. Available from: http://ruralchampions.govspace​

A contribution to a blog:

Moseley L. The conversation acupuncture piece triggers prickly debate. 2012 Nov 6 [cited 2019 Nov 6]. In: [Internet]. Adelaide: Body in Mind Research Group. 2012 - [about 3 screens]. Available from:


Format Title. [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Beginning date - [date cited YYY Mon DD]. Available from: URL
Example Medpedia. [Internet]. San Francisco: Medpedia Inc. 2009 Feb 17 - [cited 2019 Nov 6]. Available from:

Twitter feed

Format Author Surname Initials or Twitter name or organisation. Full text of tweet. [Twitter]. YYYY Mon DD of Tweet [cited YYYY Mon DD]. Available from: Tweet's unique URL
Example Cochrane. "What are systematic reviews?" New G@CochraneCCR video explains #SRs for informed health decisions. [Twitter]. 2016 Feb 2 [cited 2019 Feb 20]. Available from: